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Appendix A  SINDARIN Reference


In the SINDARIN language, there are certain pre-defined constructors or commands that cannot be used in different context by the user, which are e.g. alias, beams, integrate, simulate etc. A complete list will be given below. Also units are fixed, like degree, eV, keV, MeV, GeV, and TeV. Again, these tags are locked and not user-redefinable. Their functionality will be listed in detail below, too. Furthermore, a variable with a preceding question mark, ?, is a logical, while a preceding dollar, $, denotes a character string variable. Also, a lot of unary and binary operators exist, + - \ , = : => < > <= >=  () [] {} ==, as well as quotation marks, ". Note that the different parentheses and brackets fulfill different purposes, which will be explained below. Comments in a line can either be marked by a hash, #, or an exclamation mark, !.

  • +
    1) Arithmetic operator for addition of integers, reals and complex numbers. Example: real mm = mH + mZ (cf. also -, *, /, ^). 2) It also adds different particles for inclusive process containers: process foo = e1, E1 => (e2, E2) + (e3, E3). 3) It also serves as a shorthand notation for the concatenation of (→) combine operations on particles/subevents, e.g. cuts = any 170 GeV < M < 180 GeV [b + lepton + invisible].
  • -
    Arithmetic operator for subtraction of integers, reals and complex numbers. Example: real foo = 3.1 - 5.7 (cf. also +, *, /, ^).
  • /
    Arithmetic operator for division of integers, reals and complex numbers. Example: scale = mH / 2 (cf. also +, *, -, ^).
  • *
    Arithmetic operator for multiplication of integers, reals and complex numbers. Example: complex z = 2 * I (cf. also +, /, -, ^).
  • ^
    Arithmetic operator for exponentiation of integers, reals and complex numbers. Example: real z = x^2 + y^2 (cf. also +, /, -, ^).
  • <
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for ordering of two values: <val1> < <val2> tests whether val1 is smaller than val2. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, <>, ==, >, >=, <=)
  • >
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for ordering of two values: <val1> > <val2> tests whether val1 is larger than val2. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, <>, ==, >, >=, <=)
  • <=
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for ordering of two values: <val1> <= <val2> tests whether val1 is smaller than or equal val2. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, <>, ==, >, <, >=)
  • >=
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for ordering of two values: <val1> >= <val2> tests whether val1 is larger than or equal val2. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, <>, ==, >, <, >=)
  • ==
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for identity of two values: <val1> == <val2>. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, <>, >, <, >=, <=)
  • <>
    Arithmetic comparator between values that checks for two values being unequal: <val1> <> <val2>. Allowed for integer and real values. Note that this is an exact comparison if tolerance is set to zero. For a finite value of tolerance it is a “fuzzy” comparison. (cf. also tolerance, ==, >, <, >=, <=)
  • !
    The exclamation mark tells SINDARIN that everything that follows in that line should be treated as a comment. It is the same as (→) #.
  • #
    The hash tells SINDARIN that everything that follows in that line should be treated as a comment. It is the same as (→) !.
  • &
    Concatenates two or more particle lists/subevents and hence acts in the same way as the subevent function (→) join: let @visible = [photon] & [colored] & [lepton] in .... (cf. also join, combine, collect, extract, sort).
  • $
    Constructor at the beginning of a variable name, $<string_var>, that specifies a string variable.
  • @
    Constructor at the beginning of a variable name, @<subevt_var>, that specifies a subevent variable, e.g. let @W_candidates = combine ["mu-", "numubar"] in ....
  • =
    Binary constructor to appoint values to commands, e.g. <command> = <expr> or
    <command> <var_name> = <expr>.
  • %
    Constructor that gives the percentage of a number, so in principle multiplies a real number by 0.01. Example: 1.23 % is equal to 0.0123.
  • :
    Separator in alias expressions for particles, e.g. alias neutrino = n1:n2:n3:N1:N2:N3. (cf. also alias)
  • ;
    Concatenation operator for logical expressions: lexpr1 ; lexpr2. Evaluates lexpr1 and throws the result away, then evaluates lexpr2 and returns that result. Used in analysis expressions. (cf. also analysis, record)
  • /+
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments additively, scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> /+ <step size>). E.g. scan int i = (1 => 5 /+ 2) scans over the values 1, 3, 5. For real ranges, it divides the interval between upper and lower bound into as many intervals as the incrementor provides, e.g. scan real r = (1 => 1.5 /+ 0.2) runs over 1.0, 1.333, 1.667, 1.5.
  • /+/
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments additively, but the number after the incrementor is the number of steps, not the step size: scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> /+/ <steps>). It is only available for real scan ranges, and divides the interval <upper val> - <lower val> into <steps> steps, e.g. scan real r = (1 => 1.5 /+/ 3) runs over 1.0, 1.25, 1.5.
  • /-
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments subtractively, scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> /- <step size>). E.g. scan int i = (9 => 0 /+ 3) scans over the values 9, 6, 3, 0. For real ranges, it divides the interval between upper and lower bound into as many intervals as the incrementor provides, e.g. scan real r = (1 => 0.5 /- 0.2) runs over 1.0, 0.833, 0.667, 0.5.
  • /*
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments multiplicatively, scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> /* <step size>). E.g. scan int i = (1 => 4 /* 2) scans over the values 1, 2, 4. For real ranges, it divides the interval between upper and lower bound into as many intervals as the incrementor provides, e.g. scan real r = (1 => 5 /* 2) runs over 1.0, 2.236 (i.e. √5), 5.0.
  • /*/
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments multiplicatively, but the number after the incrementor is the number of steps, not the step size: scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> /*/ <steps>). It is only available for real scan ranges, and divides the interval <upper val> - <lower val> into <steps> steps, e.g. scan real r = (1 => 9 /*/ 4) runs over 1.000, 2.080, 4.327, 9.000.
  • //
    Incrementor for (→) scan ranges, that increments by division, scan <num_spec> <num> = (<lower val> => <upper val> // <step size>). E.g. scan int i = (13 => 0 // 3) scans over the values 13, 4, 1, 0. For real ranges, it divides the interval between upper and lower bound into as many intervals as the incrementor provides, e.g. scan real r = (5 => 1 // 2) runs over 5.0, 2.236 (i.e. √5), 1.0.
  • =>
    Binary operator that is used in several different contexts: 1) in process declarations between the particles specifying the initial and final state, e.g. process <proc_name> = <in1>, <in2> => <out1>, ....; 2) for the specification of beams when structure functions are applied to the beam particles, e.g. beams = p, p => pdf_builtin; 3) for the specification of the scan range in the scan <var> <var_name> = (<scan_start> => <scan_end> <incrementor>) (cf. also process, beams, scan)
  • %d
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for decimal integer numbers, e.g. printf "one = %d" (i). The difference between %i and %d does not play a role here. (cf. also printf, sprintf, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • %e
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for floating-point numbers in standard form [-]d.ddd e[+/-]ddd. Usage e.g. printf "pi = %e" (PI). (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • %E
    Same as (→) %e, but using upper-case letters. (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %F, %G, %s)
  • %f
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for floating-point numbers in fixed-point form. Usage e.g. printf "pi = %f" (PI). (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • %F
    Same as (→) %f, but using upper-case letters. (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %G, %s)
  • %g
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for floating-point numbers in normal or exponential notation, whichever is more approriate. Usage e.g. printf "pi = %g" (PI). (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • %G
    Same as (→) %g, but using upper-case letters. (cf. also printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %s)
  • %i
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for integer numbers, e.g. printf "one = %i" (i). The difference between %i and %d does not play a role here. (cf. printf, sprintf, %d, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • %s
    Format specifier in analogy to the C language for the print out on screen by the (→) printf or into strings by the (→) sprintf command. It is used for logical or string variables e.g. printf "foo = %s" ($method). (cf. printf, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G)
  • abarn
    Physical unit, stating that a number is in attobarns (10−18 barn). (cf. also nbarn, fbarn, pbarn)
  • abs
    Numerical function that takes the absolute value of its argument: abs (<num_val>) yields |<num_val>|. (cf. also conjg, sgn, mod, modulo)
  • acos
    Numerical function asin (<num_val>) that calculates the arccosine trigonometric function (inverse of cos) of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sin, cos, tan, asin, atan)
  • accuracy_goal     (default: 0./off)
    Real parameter that allows the user to set a minimal accuracy that should be achieved in the Monte-Carlo integration of a certain process. If that goal is reached, grid and weight adapation stop, and this result is used for simulation. (cf. also integrate, iterations, error_goal, relative_error_goal, error_threshold)
  • alias
    This allows to define a collective expression for a class of particles, e.g. to define a generic expression for leptons, neutrinos or a jet as alias lepton = e1:e2:e3:E1:E2:E3, alias neutrino = n1:n2:n3:N1:N2:N3, and alias jet = u:d:s:c:U:D:S:C:g, respectively.
  • all
    all is a function that works on a logical expression and a list, all <log_expr> [<list>], and returns true if and only if log_expr is fulfilled for all entries in list, and false otherwise. Examples: all Pt > 100 GeV [lepton] checks whether all leptons are harder than 100 GeV, all Dist > 2 [u:U, d:D] checks whether all pairs of corresponding quarks are separated in R space by more than 2. Logical expressions with all can be logically combined with and and or. (cf. also any, and, no, and or)
  • ?allow_decays     (default: true)
    Master flag to switch on cascade decays for final state particles as an event transform. As a default, it is switched on. (cf. also ?auto_decays, auto_decays_multiplicity, ?auto_decays_radiative, ?decay_rest_frame)
  • ?allow_hadronization     (default: true)
    Master flag to switch on hadronization as an event transform. As a default, it is switched on. (cf. also ?ps_ ...., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?allow_shower     (default: true)
    Master flag to switch on (initial and final state) parton shower, matching/merging as an event transform. As a default, it is switched on. (cf. also ?ps_ ...., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • alpha_power, alphas_power     (default: 0)
    Fixes the electroweak and strong coupling powers used by BLHA matrix element generators. Setting these values is necessary for the correct generation of OLP-files. Having inconsistent values yields to error messages by the corresponding OLP-providers.
  • ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd     (default: false)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to use its internal running αs from αsQCD). Note that in that case ?alpha_s_is_fixed has to be set explicitly to false. (cf. also alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin,
    ?alpha_s_from_mz, lambda_qcd)
  • ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf     (default: false)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to use a running αs from the LHAPDF library (which has to be correctly linked). Note that ?alpha_s_is_fixed has to be set explicitly to false. (cf. also alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_mz, ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • ?alpha_s_from_mz     (default: false)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to use its internal running αs from αs(MZ). Note that in that case ?alpha_s_is_fixed has to be set explicitly to false. (cf. also alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin,
    ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin     (default: false)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to use a running αs from the internal PDFs. Note that in that case ?alpha_s_is_fixed has to be set explicitly to false. (cf. also alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_mz,
    ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • ?alpha_s_is_fixed     (default: true)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to use a non-running αs. Note that this has to be set explicitly to false if the user wants to use one of the running αs options. (cf. also alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_mz,
    ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • alpha_s_nf     (default: 5)
    Integer parameter that sets the number of active quark flavors for the internal evolution for running αs in WHIZARD: the default is 5. (cf. also alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin, alpha_s_order, ?alpha_s_from_mz,
    ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • alpha_s_order     (default: 0)
    Integer parameter that sets the order of the internal evolution for running αs in WHIZARD: the default, 0, is LO running, 1 is NLO, 2 is NNLO. (cf. also alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_mz,
    ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd, lambda_qcd)
  • alt_setup
    This command allows to specify alternative setups for a process/list of processes, alt_setup = { <setup1> } [, { <setup2> } , ...]. An alternative setup can be a resetting of a coupling constant, or different cuts etc. It can be particularly used in a (→) rescan procedure.
  • analysis
    This command, analysis = <log_expr>, allows to define an analysis as a logical expression, with a syntax similar to the (→) cuts or (→) selection command. Note that a (→) formally is a logical expression.
  • ?analysis_file_only     (default: false)
    Allows to specify that only LATEX files for WHIZARD’s graphical analysis are written out, but not processed. (cf. compile_analysis, write_analysis)
  • and
    This is the standard two-place logical connective that has the value true if both of its operands are true, otherwise a value of false. It is applied to logical values, e.g. cut expressions. (cf. also all, no, or).
  • antikt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • any
    any is a function that works on a logical expression and a list, any <log_expr> [<list>], and returns true if log_expr is fulfilled for any entry in list, and false otherwise. Examples: any PDG == 13 [lepton] checks whether any lepton is a muon, any E > 2 * mW [jet] checks whether any jet has an energy of twice the W mass. Logical expressions with any can be logically combined with and and or. (cf. also all, and, no, and or)
  • as
    cf. compile
  • ascii
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the standard WHIZARD verbose/debug ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, $sample_normalization, sample_format)
  • asin
    Numerical function asin (<num_val>) that calculates the arcsine trigonometric function (inverse of sin) of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sin, cos, tan, acos, atan)
  • atan
    Numerical function atan (<num_val>) that calculates the arctangent trigonometric function (inverse of tan) of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sin, cos, tan, asin, acos)
  • athena
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the ATHENA variant for HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, $sample_normalization, sample_format)
  • ?auto_decays     (default: false)
    Flag, particularly as optional argument of the (→) unstable command, that tells WHIZARD to automatically determine the decays of that particle up to the final state multplicity (→) auto_decays_multiplicity. Depending on the flag (→) ?auto_decays_radiative, radiative decays will be taken into account or not. (cf. also unstable, ?isotropic_decay, ?diagonal_decay)
  • auto_decays_multiplicity     (default: 2)
    Integer parameter, that sets – for the (→) ?auto_decays option to let WHIZARD automatically determine the decays of a particle set as (→) unstable – the maximal final state multiplicity that is taken into account. The default is 2. The flag ?auto_decays_radiative decides whether radiative decays are taken into account. (cf. also unstable, ?auto_decays)
  • ?auto_decays_radiative     (default: false)
    If WHIZARD’s automatic detection of decay channels are switched on (→ ?auto_decays for the (→) unstable command, this flags decides whether radiative decays (e.g. containing additional photon(s)/gluon(s)) are taken into account or not. (cf. also unstable, auto_decays_multiplicity)
  • beam_events
    Beam structure specifier to read in lepton collider beamstrahlung’s spectra from external files as pairs of energy fractions: beams: e1, E1 => beam_events. Note that this is a pair spectrum that has to be applied to both beams simultaneously. (cf. also beams, $beam_events_file, ?beam_events_warn_eof)
  • $beam_events_file
    String variable that allows to set the name of the external file from which a beamstrahlung’s spectrum for lepton colliders as pairs of energy fractions is read in. (cf. also beam_events, ?beam_events_warn_eof)
  • ?beam_events_warn_eof     (default: true)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to issue a warning when in a simulation the end of an external file for beamstrahlung’s spectra for lepton colliders are reached, and energy fractions from the beginning of the file are reused. (cf. also beam_events, $beam_events_file)
  • beams
    This specifies the contents and structure of the beams: beams = <prt1>, <prt2> [ => <str_fun1> ....]. If this command is absent in the input file, WHIZARD automatically takes the two incoming partons (or one for decays) of the corresponding process as beam particles, and no structure functions are applied. Protons and antiprotons as beam particles are predefined as p and pbar, respectively. A structure function, like pdf_builtin, ISR, EPA and so on are switched on as e.g. beams = p, p => lhapdf. Structure functions can be specified for one of the two beam particles only, of the structure function is not a spectrum. (cf. also beams_momentum, beams_theta, beams_phi, beams_pol_density, beams_pol_fraction, beam_events, circe1, circe2, energy_scan, epa, ewa, isr, lhapdf, pdf_builtin).
  • beams_momentum
    Command to set the momenta (or energies) for the two beams of a scattering process: beams_momentum = <mom1>, <mom2> to allow for asymmetric beam setups (e.g. HERA: beams_momentum = 27.5 GeV, 920 GeV). Two arguments must be present for a scattering process, but the command can be used with one argument to integrate and simulate a decay of a moving particle. (cf. also beams, beams_theta, beams_phi, beams_pol_density, beams_pol_fraction)
  • beams_phi
    Same as (→) beams_theta, but to allow for a non-vanishing beam azimuth angle, too. (cf. also beams, beams_theta, beams_momentum, beams_pol_density, beams_pol_fraction)
  • beams_pol_density
    This command allows to specify the initial state for polarized beams by the syntax: beams_pol_density = @(<pol_spec_1>), @(<pol_spec_2>). Two polarization specifiers are mandatory for scattering, while one can be used for decays from polarized probes. The specifier <pol_spec_i> can be empty (no polarization), has one entry (for a definite helicity/spin orientation), or ranges of entries of a spin density matrix. The command can be used globally, or as a local argument of the integrate command. For detailed information, see Sec. 5.6.1. It is also possible to use variables as placeholders in the specifiers. Note that polarization is assumed to be complete, for partial polarization use (→) beams_pol_fraction. (cf. also beams, beams_theta, beams_phi, beams_momentum, beams_pol_fraction)
  • beams_pol_fraction
    This command allows to specify the amount of polarization when using polarized beams (→ beams_pol_density). The syntax is: beams_pol_fraction = <frac_1>, <frac_2>. Two fractions must be present for scatterings, being real numbers between 0 and 1. A specification with percentage is also possible, e.g. beams_pol_fraction = 80%, 40%. (cf. also beams, beams_theta, beams_phi, beams_momentum, beams_pol_density)
  • beams_theta
    Command to set a crossing angle (with respect to the z axis) for one or both of the beams of a scattering process: beams_theta = <angle1>, <angle2> to allow for asymmetric beam setups (e.g. beams_angle = 0, 10 degree). Two arguments must be present for a scattering process, but the command can be used with one argument to integrate and simulate a decay of a moving particle. (cf. also beams, beams_phi, beams_momentum, beams_pol_density, beams_pol_fraction)
  • blha_use_top_yukawa
    If this value is set, the given value will be used as the top Yukawa coupling instead of the top mass. Note that having different values for yt and mt must be supported by your OLP-library and yield errors if this is not the case.
  • $born_me_method     (default: "omega")
    This string variable specifies the method for the matrix elements to be used in the evaluation of the Born part of the NLO computation. The default is the intrinsic O’Mega matrix element generator ("omega"), other options are: "ovm", "unit_test", "template", "template_unity", "threshold", "gosam", "openloops". (cf. also $real_tree_me_method, $loop_me_method and $correlation_me_method.) Note that this option is inoperative if no NLO calculation is specified in the process definition. If you want ot use different matrix element methods in a LO computation, use the usual method command.
  • by
    Constructor that replaces the default sorting criterion (according to PDG codes) of the (→) sort function on particle lists/subevents by one given by a unary or binary particle observable: sort by <observable> [<particles> [, <ref_particles>] ]. (cf. also sort, extract, join, collect, combine, +)
  • cambridge_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_for_passive_algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • cambridge_for_passive_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_algorithm, plugin_algorithm,
    genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • ceiling
    This is a function ceiling (<num_val>) that gives the least integer greater than or equal to <num_val>, e.g. int i = ceiling (4.56789) gives i = 5. (cf. also int, nint, floor)
  • channel_weights_power     (default: 0.25)
    Real parameter that allows to vary the exponent of the channel weights for the VAMP integrator.
  • ?check_event_file     (default: true)
    Setting this to false turns off all sanity checks when reading a raw event file with previously generated events. Use this at your own risk; the program may return wrong results or crash if data do not match. (cf. also ?check_grid_file, ?check_phs_file)
  • ?check_event_weights_against_xsection     (default: false)
    Activates an internal recording of event weights when unweighted events are generated. At the end of the simulation, the mean value of the weights and its standard deviation are displayed. This allows to cross-check event generation and integration, because the value displayed must be equal to the integration result.
  • ?check_grid_file     (default: true)
    Setting this to false turns off all sanity checks when reading a grid file with previous integration data. Use this at your own risk; the program may return wrong results or crash if data do not match. (cf. also ?check_event_file, ?check_phs_file)
  • ?check_phs_file     (default: true)
    Setting this to false turns off all sanity checks when reading a previously generated phase-space configuration file. Use this at your own risk; the program may return wrong results or crash if data do not match. (cf. also ?check_event_file, ?check_grid_file)
  • checkpoint     (default: 0/off)
    Setting this integer variable to a positive integer n instructs simulate to print out a progress summary every n events.
  • circe1
    Beam structure specifier for the CIRCE1 structure function for beamstrahlung at a linear lepton collider: beams = e1, E1 => circe1. Note that this is a pair spectrum, so the specifier acts for both beams simultaneously. (cf. also beams, ?circe1_photons, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps,
    circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • $circe1_acc     (default: SBAND)
    String variable that specifies the accelerator type for the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton-collider beamstrahlung. (?circe1_photons, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver,
    circe1_rev, circe1_chat)
  • circe1_chat     (default: 0)
    Chattiness of the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton-collider beamstrahlung. The higher the integer value, the more information will be given out by the CIRCE1 package. (?circe1_photons, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver,
    circe1_rev, $circe1_acc)
  • circe1_eps     (default: 10−5)
    Real parameter, that takes care of the mapping of the peak in the lepton collider beamstrahlung structure function spectrum of CIRCE1. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photons, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps,
    circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • ?circe1_generate     (default: true)
    Flag that determines whether the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton collider beamstrahlung uses the generator mode for the spectrum, or a pre-defined (semi-)analytical parameterization. Default is the generator mode. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1,
    ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_map, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_eps,
    circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • ?circe1_map     (default: true)
    Flag that determines whether the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton collider beamstrahlung uses special mappings for s-channel resonances. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1,
    ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_eps,
    circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • circe1_mapping_slope     (default: 2.)
    Real parameter that allows to vary the slope of the mapping function for the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton collider beamstrahlung from the default value 2.. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • ?circe1_photon1     (default: false)
    Flag to tell WHIZARD to use the photon of the CIRCE1 beamstrahlung structure function as initiator for the hard scattering process in the first beam. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon2, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps,
    circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • ?circe1_photon2     (default: false)
    Flag to tell WHIZARD to use the photon of the CIRCE1 beamstrahlung structure function as initiator for the hard scattering process in the second beam. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1, circe1_sqrts, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps,
    circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • circe1_rev     (default: 0)
    Integer parameter that sets the internal revision number of the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton-collider beamstrahlung. The default 0 translates always into the most recent version; older versions have to be accessed through the explicit revision date. For more details cf. the CIRCE1manual. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1, ?circe1_photon2, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_sqrts, circe1_ver, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • circe1_sqrts     (default: 0/internal √s)
    Real parameter that allows to set the value of the collider energy for the lepton collider beamstrahlung structure function CIRCE1. If not set, √s is taken. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1, ?circe1_photon2, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps,
    circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_ver, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • circe1_ver     (default: 0)
    Integer parameter that sets the internal versioning number of the CIRCE1 structure function for lepton-collider beamstrahlung. It has to be set by the user explicitly, it takes values from one to ten. (cf. also circe1, ?circe1_photon1, ?circe1_photon2, ?circe1_generate, ?circe1_map, circe1_eps, circe1_mapping_slope, circe1_sqrts, circe1_rev, $circe1_acc, circe1_chat)
  • circe2
    Beam structure specifier for the lepton-collider structure function for photon spectra, CIRCE2: beams = A, A => circe2. Note that this is a pair spectrum, an application to only one beam is not possible. (cf. also beams, ?circe2_polarized, $circe2_file, $circe2_design)
  • $circe2_design     (default: "*"/CIRCE2 default)
    String variable that sets the collider design for the CIRCE2 structure function for photon collider spectra. (cf. also circe2, $circe2_file, ?circe2_polarized)
  • $circe2_file
    String variable by which the corresponding photon collider spectrum for the CIRCE2 structure function can be selected. (cf. also circe2, ?circe2_polarized, $circe2_design)
  • ?circe2_polarized     (default: true)
    Flag whether the photon spectra from the CIRCE2 structure function for lepton colliders should be treated polarized. (cf. also circe2, $circe2_file, $circe2_design)
  • ?ckkw_matching     (default: false)
    Master flag that switches on the CKKW(-L) (LO) matching between hard scattering matrix elements and QCD parton showers. Note that this is not yet (completely) implemented in WHIZARD. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ...)
  • clear
    This command allows to clear a variable set before: clear (<clearable var.>) resets the variable <clearable var.> which could be the beams, the unstable settings, sqrts, any kind of cuts or scale expressions, any user-set variable etc. The syntax of the command is completely analogous to (→) show.
  • close_out
    With the command, close_out ("<out_file">) user-defined information like data or (→) printf statements can be written out to a user-defined file. The command closes an I/O stream to an external file <out_file>. (cf. also open_out, $out_file, printf)
  • cluster
    Command that allows to cluster all particles in a subevent to a set of jets: cluster [<particles>]. It also to cluster particles subject to a certain boolean condition, cluster if <condition> [<particles>]. At the moment only available if the FastJet package is linked. (cf. also jet_r, combine, jet_algorithm, kt_algorithm,
    cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, antikt_algorithm, plugin_algorithm,
    genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_kt_algorithm, ee_genkt_algorithm, ?keep_flavors_when_clustering)
  • collect
    The collect [<list>] operation collects all particles in the list <list> into a one-entry subevent with a four-momentum of the sum of all four-momenta of non-overlapping particles in <list>. (cf. also combine, select, extract, sort)
  • complex
    Defines a complex variable. The syntax is e.g. complex x = 2 + 3 * I. (cf. also int, real)
  • combine
    The combine [<list1>, <list2>] operation makes a particle list whose entries are the result of adding (the momenta of) each pair of particles in the two input lists list1, list2. For example, combine [incoming lepton, lepton] constructs all mutual pairings of an incoming lepton with an outgoing lepton (an alias for the leptons has to be defined, of course). (cf. also collect, select, extract, sort, +)
  • combined_nlo_integration (default: false)
    When this option is set to true, the NLO integration will not be performed in the separate components, but instead the sum of all components will be integrated directly. When fixed-order NLO events are requested, this integration mode is possible, but not necessary. However, it is necessary for Powheg events.
  • compile
    The compile () command has no arguments (the parentheses can also been left out: /compile (). The command is optional, it invokes the compilation of the process(es) (i.e. the matrix element file(s)) to be compiled as a shared library. This shared object file has the standard name default_lib.so and resides in the .libs subdirectory of the corresponding user workspace. If the user has defined a different library name lib_name with the library command, then WHIZARD compiles this as the shared object .libs/lib_name.so. (This allows to split process classes and to avoid too large libraries.) Another possibility is to use the command compile as "static_name". This will compile and link the process library in a static way and create the static executable static_name in the user workspace. (cf. also library)
  • compile_analysis
    The compile_analysis statement does the same as the write_analysis command, namely to tell WHIZARD to write the analysis setup by the user for the SINDARIN input file under consideration. If no $out_file is provided, the histogram tables/plot data etc. are written to the default file whizard_analysis.dat. In addition to write_analysis, compile_analysis also invokes the WHIZARD LATEXroutines for producing postscript or PDF output of the data (unless the flag → ?analysis_file_only is set to true). (cf. also $out_file, write_analysis, ?analysis_file_only)
  • conjg
    Numerical function that takes the complex conjugate of its argument: conjg (<num_val>) yields <num_val>. (cf. also abs, sgn, mod, modulo)
  • $correlation_me_method     (default: "omega")
    This string variable specifies the method for the matrix elements to be used in the evaluation of the color (and helicity) correlated part of the NLO computation. The default is the intrinsic O’Mega matrix element generator ("omega"), other options are: "ovm", "unit_test", "template", "template_unity", "threshold", "gosam", "openloops". (cf. also $real_tree_me_method, $loop_me_method and $born_me_method.)
  • cos
    Numerical function cos (<num_val>) that calculates the cosine trigonometric function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sin, tan, asin, acos, atan)
  • cosh
    Numerical function cosh (<num_val>) that calculates the hyperbolic cosine function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. Note that its inverse function is part of the Fortran2008 status and hence not realized. (cf. also sinh, tanh)
  • count
    Subevent function that counts the number of particles or particle pairs in a subevent: count [<particles_1> [, <particles_2>]]. This can also be a counting subject to a condition: count if <condition> [<particles_1> [, <particles_2>]].
  • cuts
    This command defines the cuts to be applied to certain processes. The syntax is: cuts = <log_class> <log_expr> [<unary or binary particle (list) arg>], where the cut expression must be initialized with a logical classifier log_class like all, any, no. The logical expression log_expr contains the cut to be evaluated. Note that this need not only be a kinematical cut expression like E > 10 GeV or 5 degree < Theta < 175 degree, but can also be some sort of trigger expression or event selection, e.g. PDG == 15 would select a tau lepton. Whether the expression is evaluated on particles or pairs of particles depends on whether the discriminating variable is unary or binary, Dist being obviously binary, Pt being unary. Note that some variables are both unary and binary, e.g. the invariant mass M. Cut expressions can be connected by the logical connectives and and or. The cuts statement acts on all subsequent process integrations and analyses until a new cuts statement appears. (cf. also all, any, Dist, E, M, no, Pt).
  • debug
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the very verbose WHIZARD ASCII event file format intended for debugging. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, $sample_normalization)
  • ?debug_decay     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether decay information will be displayed in the ASCII debug event format (→) debug. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, $debug_extension, ?debug_process, ?debug_transforms, ?debug_verbose)
  • $debug_extension
    String variable that allows via $debug_extension = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in a a long verbose format with debugging information are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.debug. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, ?debug_process, ?debug_transforms, ?debug_decay, ?debug_verbose)
  • ?debug_process     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether process information will be displayed in the ASCII debug event format (→) debug. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, $debug_extension, ?debug_decay, ?debug_transforms, ?debug_verbose)
  • ?debug_transforms     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether information about event transforms will be displayed in the ASCII debug event format (→) debug. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, ?debug_decay, $debug_extension, ?debug_process, ?debug_verbose)
  • ?debug_verbose     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether extensive verbose information will be included in the ASCII debug event format (→) debug. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, $debug_extension, ?debug_decay, ?debug_transforms, ?debug_process)
  • ?decay_helicity     (default: unknown)
    If this parameter is given an integer value, any particle decay triggered by a subsequent unstable declaration will receive a projection on the given helicity state for the unstable particle. (cf. also unstable, ?isotropic_decay, ?diagonal_decay. The latter parameters, if true, take precdence over any ?decay_helicity setting.)
  • ?decay_rest_frame     (default: false)
    Flag that allows to force a particle decay to be simulated in its rest frame. This simplifies the calculation for decays as stand-alone processes, but makes the process unsuitable for use in a decay chain.
  • degree
    Expression specifying the physical unit of degree for angular variables, e.g. the cut expression function Theta. (if no unit is specified for angular variables, radians are used; cf. rad, mrad).
  • $description     (default: ""/off)
    String variable that allows to specify a description text for the analysis, $description = "<LaTeX analysis descr.>". This line appears below the title of a corresponding analysis, on top of the respective plot. (cf. also analysis, n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $x_label, $y_label, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?fill_curve, ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • ?diagonal_decay     (default: false)
    Flag that – in case of using factorized production and decays using the (→) unstable command – tells WHIZARD instead of full spin correlations to take only the diagonal entries in the spin-density matrix (i.e. classical spin correlations). (cf. also unstable, ?auto_decays, decay_helicity, ?isotropic_decay)
  • ?disable_subtraction     (default: false)
    Disables the subtraction of soft and collinear divergences from the real matrix element.
  • Dist
    Binary observable specifier, that gives the η-φ- (pseudorapidity-azimuth) distance R = √(Δ η)2 + (Δφ)2 between the momenta of the two particles: eval Dist [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Theta, Eta, Phi)
  • ?draw_base
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that tells WHIZARD to insert a base statement in the analysis code to calculate the plot data from a data set. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_curve, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, $symbol,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options,
    $err_options)
  • ?draw_curve
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that tells WHIZARD to either plot data as a continuous line or as a histogram (if → ?draw_histogram is set true). (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • ?draw_errors
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that determines whether error bars should be drawn or not. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_curve, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options,
    $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • ?draw_histogram
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that tells WHIZARD to either plot data as a histogram or as a continuous line (if → ?draw_curve is set true). (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • $draw_options
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: $draw_options = "<LaTeX_code>" is a string variable that allows to set specific drawing options for plots and histograms. For more details see the gamelan manual. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols,
    $fill_options, ?draw_histogram, $err_options, $symbol)
  • ?draw_piecewise
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that tells WHIZARD to data from a data set piecewise, i.e. histogram style. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_curve, ?draw_base, ?fill_curve, $symbol, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • ?draw_symbols
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that determines whether particular symbols (specified by → $symbol = "<LaTeX_code>") should be used for plotting data points (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $fill_options, $draw_options,
    $err_options, $symbol)
  • E
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the energy of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval E ["W+"], all E > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • ee_genkt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • ee_kt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_genkt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • else
    Constructor for providing an alternative in a conditional clause: if <log_expr> then <expr 1> else <expr 2> endif. (cf. also if, elsif, endif, then).
  • elsif
    Constructor for concatenating more than one conditional clause with each other: if <log_expr 1> then <expr 1> elsif <log_expr 2> then <expr 2> …endif. (cf. also if, else, endif, then).
  • endif
    Mandatory constructor to conclude a conditional clause: if <log_expr> then …endif. (cf. also if, else, elsif, then).
  • energy_scan
    Beam structure specifier for the energy scan structure function: beams = e1, E1 => energy_scan. This pair spectrum that has to be applied to both beams simultaneously can be used to scan over a range of collider energies without using the scan command. (cf. also beams, scan, ?energy_scan_normalize)
  • ?energy_scan_normalize     (default: false)
    Normalization flag for the energy scan structure function: if set the total cross section is normalized to unity. (cf. also energy_scan)
  • epa
    Beam structure specifier for the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA), i.e the Weizsäcker-Williams structure function: e.g. beams = e1, E1 => epa (applied to both beams), or e.g. beams = e1, u => epa, none (applied to only one beam). (cf. also beams, epa_alpha, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_e_max, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • epa_alpha     (default: 0/internal from model)
    For the equivalent photon approximation (EPA), this real parameter sets the value of αem used in the structure function. If not set, it is taken from the parameter set of the physics model in use (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_e_max, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • epa_e_max     (default: 0/internal √s)
    This real parameter allows to set the upper energy cutoff for the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA). If not set, WHIZARD simply takes the collider energy, √s. (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_alpha, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • ?epa_keep_energy     (default: false)
    As the splitting kinematics for the EPA structure function violates Lorentz invariance when the recoil is switched on, this flag forces energy conservation when set to true, otherwise violating energy conservation. (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_alpha, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil)
  • epa_mass     (default: 0/internal from model)
    This real parameter allows to set by hand the mass of the incoming particle for the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA). If not set, the mass for the initial beam particle is taken from the model in use. (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_e_max, epa_alpha, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • epa_q_min     (default: 0)
    In the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA), this real parameters sets the minimal value for the transferred momentum. Either this parameter or the mass of the beam particle has to be non-zero. (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_alpha, epa_e_max, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • ?epa_recoil     (default: false)
    Flag to switch on recoil, i.e. a non-vanishing pT-kick for the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA). (cf. also epa, epa_x_min, epa_mass, epa_alpha, epa_e_max, epa_q_min, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • epa_x_min     (default: 0)
    Real parameter that sets the lower cutoff for the energy fraction in the splitting for the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA). This parameter has to be set by the user to a non-zero value smaller than one. (cf. also epa, epa_e_max, epa_mass, epa_alpha, epa_q_min, ?epa_recoil, ?epa_keep_energy)
  • $err_options
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: $err_options = "<LaTeX_code>" is a string variable that allows to set specific drawing options for errors in plots and histograms. For more details see the gamelan manual. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, ?draw_histogram, $draw_options, $symbol)
  • error_goal     (default: 0./off)
    Real parameter that allows the user to set a minimal absolute error that should be achieved in the Monte-Carlo integration of a certain process. If that goal is reached, grid and weight adapation stop, and this result is used for simulation. (cf. also integrate, iterations, accuracy_goal, relative_error_goal, error_threshold)
  • error_threshold     (default: 0.)
    The real parameter error_threshold = <num> declares that any error value (in absolute numbers) smaller than <num> is to be considered zero. The units are fb for scatterings and GeV for decays. (cf. also integrate, iterations, accuracy_goal, error_goal, relative_error_goal)
  • Eta
    Unary and also binary observable specifier, that as a unary observable gives the pseudorapidity of a particle momentum. The pseudorapidity is given by η = − log[ tan(θ/2) ], where θ is the angle with the beam direction. As a binary observable, it gives the pseudorapidity difference between the momenta of two particles, where θ is the enclosed angle: eval Eta [e1], all abs (Eta) < 3.5 [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Rap, abs)
  • ee_kt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_genkt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • eV
    Physical unit, stating that the corresponding number is in electron volt. (cf. also keV, meV, MeV, GeV, TeV)
  • eval
    Evaluator that tells WHIZARD to evaluate the following expr: eval <expr>. Examples are: eval Rap [e1], eval M / 1 GeV [combine [q,Q]] etc. (cf. also cuts, selection, record)
  • $event_file_version     (default: ""/internal)
    String variable that allows to set the format version of the WHIZARD internal binary event format.
  • ewa
    Beam structure specifier for the equivalent-photon approximation (EWA): e.g. beams = e1, E1 => ewa (applied to both beams), or e.g. beams = e1, u => ewa, none (applied to only one beam). (cf. also beams, ewa_x_min, ewa_pt_max, ewa_mass, ?ewa_keep_energy, ?ewa_recoil)
  • ?ewa_recoil     (default: false)
    For the equivalent W approximation (EWA), this flag switches on recoil, i.e. non-collinear splitting. (cf. also ewa, ewa_x_min, ewa_pt_max, ewa_mass, ?ewa_keep_energy)
  • ?ewa_keep_energy     (default: false)
    As the splitting kinematics for the equivalent W approximation (EWA) violates Lorentz invariance when the recoil is switched on, this flag forces energy conservation when set to true, otherwise violating energy conservation. (cf. also ewa, ewa_x_min, ewa_pt_max, ewa_mass, ?ewa_recoil)
  • ewa_mass     (default: 0/internal from model)
    This real parameter allows to set by hand the mass of the incoming particle for the equivalent W approximation (EWA). If not set, the mass for the initial beam particle is taken from the model in use. (cf. also ewa, ewa_x_min, ewa_pt_max, ?ewa_keep_energy, ?ewa_recoil)
  • ewa_pt_max     (default: 0/internal √s)
    This real parameter allows to set the upper pT cutoff for the equivalent W approximation (EWA). If not set, WHIZARD simply takes the collider energy, √s. (cf. also ewa, ewa_x_min, ewa_mass, ?ewa_keep_energy, ?ewa_recoil)
  • ewa_x_min     (default: 0)
    Real parameter that sets the lower cutoff for the energy fraction in the splitting for the equivalent W approximation (EWA). This parameter has to be set by the user to a non-zero value smaller than one. (cf. also ewa, ewa_pt_max, ewa_mass, ?ewa_keep_energy, ?ewa_recoil)
  • $exclude_gauge_splittings     (default: "c:b:t:e2:e3")
    String variable that allows via $exclude_gauge_splittings = "<prt1>:<prt2>:…" to exclude fermion flavors from gluon/photon splitting into fermion pairs beyond LO. For example $exclude_gauge_splittings = "c:s:b:t" would lead to gl => u U and gl => d D as possible splittings in QCD. It is important to keep in mind that only the particles listed in the string are excluded! In QED this string would additionally allow for all splittings into lepton pairs A => l L. Therefore, once set the variable acts as a replacement of the default value, not as an addition! Note: "<prt>" can be both particle or antiparticle. It will always exclude the corresponding fermion pair. An empty string allows for all fermion flavors to take part in the splitting! Also, particles included in an alias are not excluded by $exclude_gauge_splittings!
  • exec
    Constructor exec ("<cmd_name>") that demands WHIZARD to execute/run the command cmd_name. For this to work that specific command must be present either in the path of the operating system or as a command in the user workspace.
  • exit
    Command to finish the WHIZARD run (and not execute any further code beyond the appearance of exit in the SINDARIn file. The command (which is the same as → quit) allows for an argument, exit (<expr>), where the expression can be executed, e.g. a screen message or an exit code.
  • exp
    Numerical function exp (<num_val>) that calculates the exponential of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sqrt, log, log10)
  • expect
    The binary function expect compares two numerical expressions whether they fulfill a certain ordering condition or are equal up to a specific uncertainty or tolerance which can bet set by the specifier tolerance, i.e. in principle it checks whether a logical expression is true. The expect function does actually not just check a value for correctness, but also records its result. If failures are present when the program terminates, the exit code is nonzero. The syntax is expect (<num1> <log_comp> <num2>), where <num1> and <num2> are two numerical values (or corresponding variables) and <log_comp> is one of the following logical comparators: <, >, <=, >=, ==, <>. (cf. also <, >, <=, >=, ==, <>, tolerance).
  • $extension_ascii_long     (default: "long.evt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_ascii_long = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the so called long variant of the WHIZARD version 1 style HEPEVT ASCII format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.long.evt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_ascii_short     (default: "short.evt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_ascii_short = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the so called short variant of the WHIZARD version 1 style HEPEVT ASCII format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.short.evt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_athena     (default: "athena.evt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_athena = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the ATHENA file format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.athena.evt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_debug: old version of (cf. →) $debug_extension
  • $extension_default     (default: "evt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_default = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in a the standard WHIZARD verbose ASCII format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.evt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_hepevt     (default: "hepevt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_hepevt = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the WHIZARD version 1 style HEPEVT ASCII format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.hepevt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_hepevt_verb     (default: "hepevt.verb")
    String variable that allows via $extension_hepevt_verb = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the WHIZARD version 1 style extended or verbose HEPEVT ASCII format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.hepevt.verb. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_hepmc     (default: "hepmc")
    String variable that allows via $extension_hepmc = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the HepMC format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.hepmc. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_lcio     (default: "slcio")
    String variable that allows via $extension_lcio = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the LCIO format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.slcio. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_lha     (default: "lha")
    String variable that allows via $extension_lha = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the (deprecated) LHA format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.lha. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_lha_verb     (default: "lha.verb")
    String variable that allows via $extension_lha_verb = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the (deprecated) extended or verbose LHA format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.lha.verb. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_lhef: old version of (cf. →) $lhef_extension
  • $extension_mokka     (default: "mokka.evt")
    String variable that allows via $extension_mokka = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the MOKKA format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.mokka.evt. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_raw:     (default: "evx")
    String variable that allows via $extension_raw = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in WHIZARD’s internal format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.evx. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_stdhep     (default: "stdhep")
    String variable that allows via $extension_stdhep = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the StdHEP format via the HEPEVT common block are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.hep. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_stdhep_up     (default: "up.hep")
    String variable that allows via $extension_stdhep_up = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the StdHEP format via the HEPRUP/HEPEUP common blocks are written. <process_name>.up.hep is the default file name and suffix, if this variable not set. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • $extension_stdhep_ev4     (default: "ev4.hep")
    String variable that allows via $extension_stdhep_ev4 = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the StdHEP format via the HEPEVT/HEPEV4 common blocks are written. <process_name>.up.hep is the default file name and suffix, if this variable not set. (cf. also sample_format, $sample)
  • extract
    Subevent function that either extracts the first element of a particle list/subevent: extract [ <particles>], or the element at position <index_value> of the particle list: extract index <index_value> [ <particles>]. Negative index values count from the end of the list. (cf. also sort, combine, collect, +, index)
  • factorization_scale
    This is a command, factorization_scale = <expr>, that sets the factorization scale of a process or list of processes. It overwrites a possible scale set by the (→) scale command. <expr> can be any kinematic expression that leads to a result of momentum dimension one, e.g. 100 GeV, eval Pt [e1]. (cf. also renormalization_scale).
  • false
    Constructor stating that a logical expression or variable is false, e.g. ?<log_var> = false. (cf. also true).
  • ?fatal_beam_decay     (default: true)
    Logical variable that let the user decide whether the possibility of a beam decay is treated as a fatal error or only as a warning. An example is a process b tX, where the bottom quark as an inital state particle appears as a possible decay product of the second incoming particle, the top quark. This might trigger inconsistencies or instabilities in the phase space set-up.
  • fbarn
    Physical unit, stating that a number is in femtobarns (10−15 barn). (cf. also nbarn, abarn, pbarn)
  • ?fill_curve
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that tells WHIZARD to fill data curves (e.g. as a histogram). The style can be set with → $fill_options = "<LaTeX_code>". (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • $fill_options
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: $fill_options = "<LaTeX_code>" is a string variable that allows to set fill options when plotting data as filled curves with the → ?fill_curve flag. For more details see the gamelan manual. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, ?fill_curve, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • floor
    This is a function floor (<num_val>) that gives the greatest integer less than or equal to <num_val>, e.g. int i = floor (4.56789) gives i = 4. (cf. also int, nint, ceiling)
  • fixed_alpha_region
    Fixes the αr in the real subtraction component. Allows for testing in one individual singular region.
  • ?fixed_order_nlo_events     (default: false)
    Induces the generation of fixed-order NLO events. Deprecated name: ?nlo_fixed_order.
  • fks_dij_exp1, fks_dij_exp2     (default: 1)
    Fine-tuning parameters of the FKS partition functions. The exact meaning depends on the mapping implementation.
  • $fks_mapping_type
    Sets the FKS mapping type. Possible values are "default" and "resonances". The latter option activates the resonance-aware subtraction mode and induces the generation of a soft mismatch component.
  • form_threads     (default: 2)
    The number of threads used by Gosamwhen matrix elements are evaluated using FORM
  • form_workspace     (default: 1000)
    The size of the workspace Gosamrequires from FORM. Inside FORM, it corresponds to the heap size used by the algebra processor.
  • gaussian
    Beam structure specifier that imposes a Gaussian energy distribution, separately for each beam. The σ values are set by gaussian_spread1 and gaussian_spread2, respectively.
  • gaussian_spread1 (default: 0)
    Parameter that sets the energy spread (σ value) of the first beam for a Gaussian spectrum. (cf. gaussian)
  • gaussian_spread2 (default: 0)
    Ditto, for the second beam.
  • genkt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_for_passive_algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_for_passive_algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • genkt_for_passive_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_for_passive_algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • GeV
    Physical unit, energies in 109 electron volt. This is the default energy unit of WHIZARD. (cf. also eV, keV, MeV, meV, TeV)
  • gks_multiplicity
    Jet multiplicity for the GKS merging scheme.
  • $gmlcode_bg     (default: ""/off)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: string variable that allows to define a background for plots and histograms (i.e. it is overwritten by the plot/histogram), e.g. a grid: $gmlcode_bg = "standardgrid.lr(5);". For more details, see the gamelan manual. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options,
    $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • $gmlcode_fg     (default: ""/off)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: string variable that allows to define a foreground for plots and histograms (i.e. it overwrites the plot/histogram), e.g. a grid: $gmlcode_bg = "standardgrid.lr(5);". For more details, see the gamelan manual. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options,
    $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • $gosam_fc
    The Fortran compiler used by Gosam.
  • $gosam_filter_lo
    The filter string given to Gosamin order to filter out tree-level diagrams.
  • $gosam_filter_nlo
    The same as above, but for loop matrix elements.
  • graph
    This command defines the necessary information regarding producing a graph of a function in WHIZARD’s internal graphical gamelan output. The syntax is: graph <record_name> { <optional arguments> }. The record with name <record_name> has to be defined, either before or after the graph definition. Possible optional arguments of the graph command are the minimal and maximal values of the axes (x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max). (cf. plot, histogram, record)
  • graph_height_mm     (default: 90)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: integer value that sets the height of a graph or histogram in millimeters. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols,
    $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • graph_width_mm     (default: 130)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: integer value that sets the width of a graph or histogram in millimeters. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols,
    $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • ?hadronization_active     (default: false)
    Master flag to switch hadronization (through the attached PYTHIA package) on or off. As a default, it is off. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ...)
  • Hel
    Unary observable specifier that allows to specify the helicity of a particle, e.g. all Hel == -1 [e1] in a selection. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection)
  • ?helicity_selection_active     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether WHIZARD uses a numerical selection rule for vanishing helicities: if active, then, if a certain helicity combination yields an absolute (O’Mega) matrix element smaller than a certain threshold (→ helicity_selection_threshold) more often than a certain cutoff (→ helicity_selection_cutoff), it will be dropped.
  • helicity_selection_cutoff     (default: 1000)
    Integer parameter that gives the number a certain helicity combination of an (O’Mega) amplitude has to be below a certain threshold (→ helicity_selection_threshold) in order to be dropped from then on. (cf. also ?helicity_selection_active)
  • helicity_selection_threshold     (default: 1010)
    Real parameter that gives the threshold for the absolute value of a certain helicity combination of an (O’Mega) amplitude. If a certain number (→ helicity_selection_cutoff) of calls stays below this threshold, that combination will be dropped from then on. (cf. also ?helicity_selection_active)
  • hepevt
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • hepevt_verb
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the extended or verbose version of HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • ?hepevt_ensure_order     (default: false)
    Flag to ensure that the particle set confirms the HEPEVT standard. This involves some copying and reordering to guarantee that mothers and daughters are always next to each other. Usually this is not necessary.
  • hepmc
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of HepMC ASCII event files. Note that this is only available if the HepMC package is installed and correctly linked. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, ?hepmc_output_cross_section)
  • ?hepmc_output_cross_section     (default: false)
    Flag for the HepMC event format that allows to write out the cross section (and error) from the integration together with each HepMC event. This can be used by programs like Rivet to scale histograms according to the cross section. (cf. also hepmc)
  • histogram
    This command defines the necessary information regarding plotting data as a histogram, in the form of: histogram <record_name> { <optional arguments> }. The record with name <record_name> has to be defined, either before or after the histogram definition. Possible optional arguments of the histogram command are the minimal and maximal values of the axes (x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max). (cf. graph, plot, record)
  • ?hoppet_b_matching     (default: false)
    Flag that switches on the matching between 4- and 5-flavor schemes for hadron collider b-parton initiated processes. Works either with builtin PDFs or with the external LHAPDF interface. Needs the external HOPPET library to be linked. (cf. beams, pdf_builtin, lhapdf)
  • if
    Conditional clause with the construction if <log_expr> then <expr> [else <expr> …] endif. Note that there must be an endif statement. For more complicated expressions it is better to use expressions in parentheses: if (<log_expr>) then {<expr>} else {<expr>} endif. Examples are a selection of up quarks over down quarks depending on a logical variable: if ?ok then u else d, or the setting of an integer variable depending on the rapidity of some particle: if (eta > 0) then { a = +1} else { a = -1}. (cf. also elsif, endif, then)
  • in
    Second part of the constructor to let a variable be local to an expression. It has the syntax let <var> = <value> in <expression>. E.g. let int a = 3 in let int b = 4 in <expression> (cf. also let)
  • include
    The include statement, include ("file.sin") allows to include external SINDARIN files file.sin into the main WHIZARD input file. A standard example is the inclusion of the standard cut file default_cuts.sin.
  • incoming
    Constructor that specifies particles (or subevents) as incoming. It is used in cuts, analyses or selections, e.g. cuts = all Theta > 20 degree [incoming lepton, lepton]. (cf. also cuts, analysis, selection, record)
  • index
    Specifies the position of the element of a particle to be extracted by the subevent function (→) extract: extract index <index_value> [ <particles>]. Negative index values count from the end of the list. (cf. also extract, sort, combine, collect, +)
  • int
    1) This is a constructor to specify integer constants in the input file. Strictly speaking, it is a unary function setting the value int_val of the integer variable int_var: int <int_var> = <int_val>. Note that is mandatory for all user-defined variables. (cf. also real and complex) 2) It is a function int (<num_val>) that converts real and complex numbers (here their real parts) into integers. (cf. also nint, floor, ceiling)
  • integrate
    The integrate (<proc_name>) { <integrate_options> } command invokes the integration (phase-space generation and Monte-Carlo sampling) of the process proc_name (which can also be a list of processes) with the integration options <integrate_options>. Possible options are (1) via $integration_method = "<intg. method>" the integration method (the default being VAMP), (2) the number of iterations and calls per integration during the Monte-Carlo phase-space integration via the iterations specifier; (3) goal for the accuracy, error or relative error (accuracy_goal, error_goal, relative_error_goal). (4) Invoking only phase space generation (?phs_only = true), (5) making test calls of the matrix element. (cf. also iterations, accuracy_goal, error_goal, relative_error_goal, error_threshold)
  • $integration_method     (default: "vamp")
    This string variable specifies the method for performing the multi-dimensional phase-space integration. The default is the VAMP algorithm ("vamp"), other options are via the numerical midpoint rule ("midpoint").
  • ?integration_timer     (default: true)
    This flag switches the integration timer on and off, that gives the estimate for the duration of the generation of 10,000 unweighted events for each integrated process.
  • ?isotropic_decay     (default: false)
    Flag that – in case of using factorized production and decays using the (→) unstable command – tells WHIZARD to switch off spin correlations completely (isotropic decay). (cf. also unstable, ?auto_decays, decay_helicity, ?diagonal_decay)
  • isr
    Beam structure specifier for the lepton-collider/QED initial-state radiation (ISR) structure function: e.g. beams = e1, E1 => isr (applied to both beams), or e.g. beams = e1, u => isr, none (applied to only one beam). (cf. also beams, isr_alpha, isr_q_max, isr_mass, isr_order, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_keep_energy)
  • isr_alpha     (default: 0/internal from model)
    For lepton collider initial-state QED radiation (ISR), this real parameter sets the value of αem used in the structure function. If not set, it is taken from the parameter set of the physics model in use (cf. also isr, isr_q_max, isr_mass, isr_order, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_keep_energy)
  • ?isr_keep_energy     (default: false)
    As the splitting kinematics for the ISR structure function violates Lorentz invariance when the recoil is switched on, this flag forces energy conservation when set to true, otherwise violating energy conservation. (cf. also isr, isr_q_max, isr_mass, isr_order, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_alpha)
  • isr_mass     (default: 0/internal from model)
    This real parameter allows to set by hand the mass of the incoming particle for lepton collider initial-state QED radiation (ISR). If not set, the mass for the initial beam particle is taken from the model in use. (cf. also isr, isr_q_max, isr_alpha, isr_order, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_keep_energy)
  • isr_order     (default: 3)
    For lepton collider initial-state QED radiation (ISR), this integer parameter allows to set the order up to which hard-collinear radiation is taken into account. Default is the highest available, namely third order. (cf. also isr, isr_q_max, isr_mass, isr_alpha, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_keep_energy)
  • isr_q_max     (default: 0/internal √s)
    This real parameter allows to set the scale of the initial-state QED radiation (ISR) structure function. If not set, it is taken internally to be √s. (cf. also isr, isr_alpha, isr_mass, isr_order, ?isr_recoil, ?isr_keep_energy)
  • ?isr_recoil     (default: false)
    Flag to switch on recoil, i.e. a non-vanishing pT-kick for the lepton collider initial-state QED radiation (ISR). (cf. also isr, isr, isr_alpha, isr_mass, isr_order, isr_q_max)
  • iterations     (default: internal heuristics)
    Option to set the number of iterations and calls per iteration during the Monte-Carlo phase-space integration process. The syntax is iterations = <n_iterations>:<n_calls>. Note that this can be also a list, separated by colons, which breaks up the integration process into passes of the specified number of integrations and calls each. It works for all integration methods. For VAMP, there is the additional option to specify whether grids and channel weights should be adapted during iterations ("g", "w", "gw" for both, or "" for no adaptation). (cf. also integrate, accuracy_goal, error_goal, relative_error_goal, error_threshold).
  • jet_algorithm
    Variable that allows to set the type of jet algorithm when using the external FastJet library. It accepts one of the following algorithms: (→) kt_algorithm,
    (→) cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, (→) antikt_algorithm, (→) plugin_algorithm, (→) genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, (→) ee_[gen]kt_algorithm). (cf. also cluster, jet_r)
  • jet_r     (default: 0.)
    Value for the distance measure used in the jet clustering algorithms that are available via the interface to the FastJet package. (cf. also cluster, combine, jet_algorithm, kt_algorithm, cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, antikt_algorithm,
    plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm)
  • join
    Subevent function that concatenates two particle lists/subevents if there is no overlap: join [<particles>, <new_particles>]. The joining of the two lists can also be made depending on a condition: join if <condition> [<particles>, <new_particles>]. (cf. also &, collect, combine, extract, sort, +)
  • ?keep_beams     (default: false)
    The logical variable ?keep_beams = true/false specifies whether beam particles and beam remnants are included when writing event files. For example, in order to read Les Houches accord event files into PYTHIA, no beam particles are allowed.
  • ?keep_failed_events     (default: false)
    In the context of weighted event generation, if set to true, events with failed kinematics will be written to the event output with an associated weight of zero. This way, the total cross section can be reconstructed from the event output.
  • ?keep_flavors_when_clustering     (default: false)
    The logical variable ?keep_flavors_when_clustering = true/false specifies whether the flavor of a jet should be kept during cluster when a jet consists of one quark and zero or more gluons. Especially useful for cuts on b-tagged jets (cf. also cluster).
  • ?keep_remnants     (default: true)
    The logical variable ?keep_beams = true/false is respected only if ?keep_beams is set. If true, beam remnants are tagged as outgoing particles if they have been neither showered nor hadronized, i.e., have no children. If false, beam remnants are also included in the event record, but tagged as unphysical. Note that for ISR and/or beamstrahlung spectra, the radiated photons are considered as beam remnants.
  • keV
    Physical unit, energies in 103 electron volt. (cf. also eV, meV, MeV, GeV, TeV)
  • kT
    Binary particle observable that represents a jet kT clustering measure: kT [j1, j2] gives the following kinematic expression: 2 min(Ej12, Ej22) / Q2 × (1 − cosθj1,j2). At the moment, Q2 = 1.
  • kt_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also cambridge_[for_passive_]algorithm, plugin_algorithm, genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • lambda_qcd     (default: 200 MeV)
    Real parameter that sets the value for ΛQCD used in the internal evolution for running αs in WHIZARD. (cf. also alpha_s_is_fixed, ?alpha_s_from_lhapdf, alpha_s_nf, ?alpha_s_from_pdf_builtin, ?alpha_s_from_mz, ?alpha_s_from_lambda_qcd,
    alpha_s_order)
  • let
    This allows to let a variable be local to an expression. It has the syntax let <var> = <value> in <expression>. E.g. let int a = 3 in let int b = 4 in <expression> (cf. also in)
  • lha
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the WHIZARD version 1 style (deprecated) LHA ASCII event format files. (cf. also $sample,
    sample_format)
  • lhapdf
    This is a beams specifier to demand calling LHAPDF parton densities as structure functions to integrate processes in hadron collisions. Note that this only works if the external LHAPDF library is present and correctly linked. (cf. beams, $lhapdf_dir, $lhapdf_file, lhapdf_photon, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_member, lhapdf_photon_scheme)
  • $lhapdf_dir     (default: ""/external)
    String variable that tells the path where the LHAPDF library and PDF sets can be found. When the library has been correctly recognized during configuration, this is automatically set by WHIZARD. (cf. also lhapdf, $lhapdf_file, lhapdf_photon, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_member, lhapdf_photon_scheme)
  • $lhapdf_file     (default: ""/external)
    This string variable $lhapdf_file = "<pdf_set>" allows to specify the PDF set <pdf_set> from the external LHAPDF library. It must match the exact name of the PDF set from the LHAPDF library. The default is empty, and the default set from LHAPDF is taken. Only one argument is possible, the PDF set must be identical for both beams, unless there are fundamentally different beam particles like proton and photon. (cf. also lhapdf, $lhapdf_dir, lhapdf_photon, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_photon_scheme, lhapdf_member)
  • lhapdf_member     (default: 0)
    Integer variable that specifies the number of the corresponding PDF set chosen via the command (→) $lhapdf_file or (→) $lhapdf_photon_file from the external LHAPDF library. E.g. error PDF sets can be chosen by this. (cf. also lhapdf, $lhapdf_dir, $lhapdf_file, lhapdf_photon, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_photon_scheme)
  • lhapdf_photon
    This is a beams specifier to demand calling LHAPDF parton densities as structure functions to integrate processes in hadron collisions with a photon as initializer of the hard scattering process. Note that this only works if the external LHAPDF library is present and correctly linked. (cf. beams, lhapdf, $lhapdf_dir, $lhapdf_file, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_member, lhapdf_photon_scheme)
  • $lhapdf_photon_file     (default: ""/external)
    String variable $lhapdf_photon_file = "<pdf_set>" analagous to (→) $lhapdf_file for photon PDF structure functions from the external LHAPDF library. The name must exactly match the one of the set from LHAPDF. (cf. beams, lhapdf, $lhapdf_dir, $lhapdf_file, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_member, lhapdf_photon_scheme)
  • lhapdf_photon_scheme     (default: 0)
    Integer parameter that controls the different available schemes for photon PDFs inside the external LHAPDF library. For more details see the LHAPDF manual. (cf. also lhapdf, $lhapdf_dir, $lhapdf_file, lhapdf_photon, $lhapdf_photon_file, lhapdf_member)
  • lhef
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the Les Houches Accord (LHEF) event format files, with XML headers. There are several different versions of this format, which can be selected via the $lhef_version specifier (cf. also $sample, sample_format, $lhef_version, $lhef_extension, ?lhef_write_sqme_prc,
    ?lhef_write_sqme_ref, ?lhef_write_sqme_alt)
  • $lhef_extension     (default: "lhe")
    String variable that allows via $lhef_extension = "<suffix>" to specify the suffix for the file name.suffix to which events in the LHEF format are written. If not set, the default file name and suffix is <process_name>.lhe. (cf. also sample_format, $sample, lhef, $lhef_extension, $lhef_version, ?lhef_write_sqme_prc, ?lhef_write_sqme_ref, ?lhef_write_sqme_alt)
  • $lhef_version     (default: "2.0")
    Specifier for the Les Houches Accord (LHEF) event format files with XML headers to discriminate among different versions of this format. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, lhef, $lhef_extension, $lhef_extension, ?lhef_write_sqme_prc, ?lhef_write_sqme_ref, ?lhef_write_sqme_alt)
  • $lhef_write_sqme_alt     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether in the (→) lhef event format alternative weights of the squared matrix element shall be written in the LHE file. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, lhef, $lhef_extension, $lhef_extension, ?lhef_write_sqme_prc, ?lhef_write_sqme_ref)
  • $lhef_write_sqme_prc     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether in the (→) lhef event format the weights of the squared matrix element of the corresponding process shall be written in the LHE file. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, lhef, $lhef_extension, $lhef_extension, ?lhef_write_sqme_ref,
    ?lhef_write_sqme_alt)
  • $lhef_write_sqme_ref     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether in the (→) lhef event format reference weights of the squared matrix element shall be written in the LHE file. (cf. also $sample, sample_format, lhef, $lhef_extension, $lhef_extension, ?lhef_write_sqme_prc, ?lhef_write_sqme_alt)
  • library
    The command library = "<lib_name>" allows to specify a separate shared object library archive lib_name.so, not using the standard library default_lib.so. Those libraries (when using shared libraries) are located in the .libs subdirectory of the user workspace. Specifying a separate library is useful for splitting up large lists of processes, or to restrict a larger number of different loaded model files to one specific process library. (cf. also compile, $library_name)
  • $library_name
    Similar to $model_name, this string variable is used solely to access the name of the active process library, e.g. in printf statements. (cf. compile, library, printf, show, $model_name)
  • log
    Numerical function log (<num_val>) that calculates the natural logarithm of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sqrt, exp, log10)
  • log10
    Numerical function log10 (<num_val>) that calculates the base 10 logarithm of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sqrt, exp, log)
  • ?logging     (default: true)
    This logical – when set to false – suppresses writing out a logfile (default: whizard.log) for the whole WHIZARD run, or when WHIZARD is run with the --no-logging option, to suppress parts of the logging when setting it to true again at a later part of the SINDARIN input file. Mainly for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?openmp_logging)
  • long
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the long variant of HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • $loop_me_method     (default: "openloops")
    This string variable specifies the method for the matrix elements to be used in the evaluation of the virtual part of the NLO computation. The default is OpenLoops ("openloops"), other options are: "threshold", "openloops". (cf. also $real_tree_me_method, $correlation_me_method and $born_me_method.)
  • luminosity     (default: 0)
    This specifier luminosity = <num> sets the integrated luminosity (in inverse femtobarns, fb−1) for the event generation of the processes in the SINDARIN input files. Note that WHIZARD itself chooses the number from the luminosity or from the n_events specifier, whichever would give the larger number of events. As this depends on the cross section under consideration, it might be different for different processes in the process list. (cf. n_events, $sample, sample_format, ?unweighted)
  • M
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the (signed) mass of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval M [e1], any M = 91 GeV [e2, E2]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • M2
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the mass squared of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval M2 [e1], all M2 > 2*mZ [e2, E2]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • max
    Numerical function with two arguments max (<var1>, <var2>) that gives the maximum of the two arguments: max(var1, var2). It can act on all combinations of integer and real variables. Example: real heavier_mass = max (mZ, mH). (cf. also min)
  • max_bins     (default: 20)
    Integer parameter that modifies the settings of the VAMP integrator’s grid parameters. It sets the maximal number of bins per integration dimension. (cf. iterations, min_bins, min_calls_per_channel, min_calls_per_bin)
  • $method     (default: "omega")
    This string variable specifies the method for the matrix elements to be used in the evaluation. The default is the intrinsic O’Mega matrix element generator ("omega"), other options are: "ovm", "unit_test", "template", "template_unity", "threshold". For processes defined with nlo_calculation = ..., please refer to $born_me_method, $real_tree_me_method, $loop_me_method and $correlation_me_method.
  • meV
    Physical unit, stating that the corresponding number is in 10−3 electron volt. (cf. also eV, keV, MeV, GeV, TeV)
  • MeV
    Physical unit, energies in 106 electron volt. (cf. also eV, keV, meV, GeV, TeV)
  • min
    Numerical function with two arguments min (<var1>, <var2>) that gives the minimum of the two arguments: min(var1, var2). It can act on all combinations of integer and real variables. Example: real lighter_mass = min (mZ, mH). (cf. also max)
  • min_bins     (default: 3)
    Integer parameter that modifies the settings of the VAMP integrator’s grid parameters. It sets the minimal number of bins per integration dimension. (cf. iterations, max_bins, min_calls_per_channel, min_calls_per_bin)
  • min_calls_per_bin     (default: 10)
    Integer parameter that modifies the settings of the VAMP integrator’s grid parameters. It sets the minimal number every bin in an integration dimension must be called. If the number of calls from the iterations is too small, WHIZARD will automatically increase the number of calls. (cf. iterations, min_calls_per_channel, min_bins, max_bins)
  • min_calls_per_channel     (default: 10)
    Integer parameter that modifies the settings of the VAMP integrator’s grid parameters. It sets the minimal number every channel must be called. If the number of calls from the iterations is too small, WHIZARD will automatically increase the number of calls. (cf. iterations, min_calls_per_bin, min_bins, max_bins)
  • mlm_Eclusfactor     (default: 0.2)
    This real parameter is a factor that enters the calculation of the ycut measure for jet clustering after the parton shower in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_Emin     (default: 0.)
    Real parameter that sets a minimal energy Emin value as an infrared cutoff in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_etaclusfactor     (default: 1.)
    This real parameter is a factor that enters the calculation of the ycut measure for jet clustering after the parton shower in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_etamax     (default: 0.)
    This real parameter sets a maximal pseudorapidity that enters the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_ETclusfactor     (default: 0.2)
    This real parameter is a factor that enters the calculation of the ycut measure for jet clustering after the parton shower in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_ETclusminE     (default: 5 GeV)
    This real parameter is a minimal energy that enters the calculation of the ycut measure for jet clustering after the parton shower in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?mlm_matching     (default: false)
    Master flag to switch on MLM (LO) jet matching between hard matrix elements and the QCD parton shower. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_nmaxMEjets     (default: 0/off)
    This integer sets the maximal number of jets that are available from hard matrix elements in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton shower. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_Qcut_ME     (default: 0 GeV)
    Real parameter that in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton shower sets a possible virtuality cut on jets from the hard matrix element. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_Qcut_PS     (default: 0 GeV)
    Real parameter that in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton shower sets a possible virtuality cut on jets from the parton shower. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_ptmin     (default: 0 GeV)
    This real parameter sets a minimal pT that enters the ycut jet clustering measure in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_Rclusfactor     (default: 1.)
    This real parameter is a factor that enters the calculation of the ycut measure for jet clustering after the parton shower in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mlm_Rmin     (default: 0.)
    Real parameter that sets a minimal R distance value that enters the ycut jet clustering measure in the MLM jet matching between hard matrix elements and QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • mod
    Numerical function for integer and real numbers mod (x, y) that computes the remainder of the division of x by y (which must not be zero). (cf. also abs, conjg, sgn, modulo)
  • model     (default: SM)
    With this specifier, model = <model_name>, one sets the hard interaction physics model for the processes defined after this model specification. The list of available models can be found in Table 10.1. Note that the model specification can appear arbitrarily often in a SINDARIN input file, e.g. for compiling and running processes defined in different physics models. (cf. also $model_name)
  • $model_name     (default: SM)
    This variable makes the locally used physics model available as a string, e.g. as show ($model_name). However, the user is not able to change the current model by setting this variable to a different string. (cf. also model, $library_name, printf, show)
  • modulo
    Numerical function for integer and real numbers modulo (x, y) that computes the value of x modulo y. (cf. also abs, conjg, sgn, mod)
  • mokka
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the MOKKA variant for HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • mrad
    Expression specifying the physical unit of milliradians for angular variables. This default in WHIZARD is rad. (cf. degree, rad).
  • ?muli_active     (default: false)
    Master flag that switches on WHIZARD’s module for multiple interaction with interleaved QCD parton showers for hadron colliders. Note that this feature is still experimental. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ...)
  • mult_call_real     (default: 1.0)
    (Real-valued) multiplier for the number of calls used in the integration of the real subtraction component. This way, a higher accuracy can be achieved for the real component, while simultaneously avoiding redundant integration calls for the other components.
  • mult_call_virt     (default: 1.0)
    Same as above, for the virtual component.
  • nbarn
    Physical unit, stating that a number is in nanobarns (10−9 barn). (cf. also abarn, fbarn, pbarn)
  • n_bins     (default: 20)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: integer value that sets the number of bins in histograms. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols,
    $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • n_calls_test     (default: 0/off)
    Integer variable that allows to set a certain number of matrix element sampling test calls without actually integrating the process under consideration. (cf. integrate)
  • ?negative_weights     (default: false)
    Flag that tells WHIZARD to allow negative weights in integration and simulation. (cf. also simulate, ?unweighted)
  • n_events     (default: 0)
    This specifier n_events = <num> sets the number of events for the event generation of the processes in the SINDARIN input files. Note that WHIZARD itself chooses the number from the n_events or from the luminosity specifier, whichever would give the larger number of events. As this depends on the cross section under consideration, it might be different for different processes in the process list. (cf. luminosity, $sample, sample_format, ?unweighted)
  • n_in
    Integer variable that accesses the number of incoming particles of a process. It can be used in cuts or in an analysis. (cf. also sqrts_hat, cuts, record, n_out, n_tot)
  • nint
    This is a function nint (<num_val>) that converts real numbers into the closest integer, e.g. int i = nint (4.56789) gives i = 5. (cf. also int, floor, ceiling)
  • $nlo_correction_type     (default: "QCD")
    String variable which sets the NLO correction type via nlo_correction_type = "<type>" to either "QCD" or "QED", or to both with <type> set to "Full".
  • no
    no is a function that works on a logical expression and a list, no <log_expr> [<list>], and returns true if and only if log_expr is fulfilled for none of the entries in list, and false otherwise. Examples: no Pt < 100 GeV [lepton] checks whether no lepton is softer than 100 GeV. It is the logical opposite of the function all. Logical expressions with no can be logically combined with and and or. (cf. also all, any, and, and or)
  • none
    Beams specifier that can used to explicitly not apply a structure function to a beam, e.g. in HERA physics: beams = e1, P => none, pdf_builtin. (cf. also beams)
  • ?normalize_bins     (default: false)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that determines whether the weights shall be normalized to the bin width or not. (cf. also n_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram,
    ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • not
    This is the standard logical negation that converts true into false and vice versa. It is applied to logical values, e.g. cut expressions. (cf. also and, or).
  • n_out
    Integer variable that accesses the number of outgoing particles of a process. It can be used in cuts or in an analysis. (cf. also sqrts_hat, cuts, record, n_in, n_tot)
  • n_tot
    Integer variable that accesses the total number of particles (incoming plus outgoing) of a process. It can be used in cuts or in an analysis. (cf. also sqrts_hat, cuts, record, n_in, n_out)
  • observable
    With this, observable = <obs_spec>, the user is able to define a variable specifier obs_spec for observables. These can be reused in the analysis, e.g. as a record, as functions of the fundamental kinematical variables of the processes. (cf. analysis, record)
  • $obs_label     (default: ""/off)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: this is a string variable $obs_label = "<LaTeX_Code>" that allows to attach a label to a plotted or histogrammed observable. (cf. also n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • $obs_unit     (default: ""/off)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: this is a string variable $obs_unit = "<LaTeX_Code>" that allows to attach a LATEX physical unit to a plotted or histogrammed observable. (cf. also n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?fill_curve, ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • $omega_flags     (default: "")
    String variable that allows to pass flags to the O’Mega matrix element generator. Normally, WHIZARD takes care of all flags automatically. Note that for restrictions of intermediate states, there is a special string variable: (cf. →) $restrictions.
  • ?omega_openmp     (default: set by OpenMP)
    Flag to switch on or off OpenMP multi-threading for O’Mega matrix elements. (cf. also $method, $omega_flag)
  • ?openmp_is_active     (default: set by OpenMP)
    Flag to switch on or off OpenMP multi-threading for WHIZARD. (cf. also ?openmp_logging, openmp_num_threads, openmp_num_threads_default, ?omega_openmp)
  • ?openmp_logging     (default: true)
    This logical – when set to false – suppresses writing out messages about OpenMP parallelization (number of used threads etc.) on screen and into the logfile (default name whizard.log) for the whole WHIZARD run. Mainly for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?logging)
  • openmp_num_threads     (default: set by OpenMP)
    Integer parameter that sets the number of OpenMP threads for multi-threading. (cf. also ?openmp_logging, openmp_num_threads_default, ?omega_openmp)
  • openmp_num_threads_default     (default: set by OpenMP)
    Integer parameter that shows the number of default OpenMP threads for multi-threading. Note that this parameter can only be accessed, but not reset by the user. (cf. also ?openmp_logging, openmp_num_threads, ?omega_openmp)
  • openloops_phs_tolerance
  • openloops_stability_log     (default: 0)
    Creates the directory stability_log containing information about the performance of the OpenLoopsmatrix elements. Possible values are 0 (No output), 1 (On finish()-call), 2 (Adaptive) and 3 (Always).
  • ?openloops_switch_off_muon_yukawa
    Sets the Yukawa coupling of muons to zero.
  • ?openloops_top_signal
    Loads a special library which only contains the signal diagram for the process e+ ett. Relevant in the context of tt-threshold matching.
  • ?openloops_use_cms
    Activates the complex mass scheme in OpenLoops
  • ?openloops_use_collier     (default: true)
    Use Collier (citation?) as the reduction method of OpenLoops.
  • ?openloops_verbosity     (default: 1)
    Decides how much OpenLoopsoutput is printed. Can have values 0, 1 and 2, where 2 is the highest verbosity level.
  • open_out
    With the command, open_out ("<out_file">) user-defined information like data or (→) printf statements can be written out to a user-defined file. The command opens an I/O stream to an external file <out_file>. (cf. also close_out, $out_file, printf)
  • or
    This is the standard two-place logical connective that has the value true if one of its operands is true, otherwise a value of false. It is applied to logical values, e.g. cut expressions. (cf. also and, not).
  • ?out_advance     (default: true)
    Flag that sets advancing in the printf output commands, i.e. continuous printing with no line feed etc. (cf. also printf)
  • $out_file     (default: ""/off)
    This character variable allows to specify the name of the data file to which the histogram and plot data are written (cf. also write_analysis, open_out, close_out)
  • P
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the spatial momentum √p2 of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval P ["W+"], all P > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • ?pacify     (default: false)
    Flag that allows to suppress numerical noise and give screen and log file output with a lower number of significant digits. Mainly for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?sample_pacify)
  • pbarn
    Physical unit, stating that a number is in picobarns (10−12 barn). (cf. also abarn, fbarn, nbarn)
  • pdf_builtin
    This is a beams specifier for WHIZARD’s internal PDF structure functions to integrate processes in hadron collisions. (cf. beams, pdf_builtin_photon, $pdf_builtin_file)
  • pdf_builtin_photon
    This is a beams specifier for WHIZARD’s internal PDF structure functions to integrate processes in hadron collisions with a photon as initializer of the hard scattering process. (cf. beams, $pdf_builtin_file)
  • $pdf_builtin_set     (default: "CTEQ6L")
    For WHIZARD’s internal PDF structure functions for hadron colliders, this string variable allows to set the particular PDF set. (cf. also pdf_builtin, pdf_builtin_photon)
  • PDG
    Unary observable specifier that allows to specify the PDG code of a particle, e.g. eval PDG [e1], giving 11. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection)
  • Phi
    Unary and also binary observable specifier, that as a unary observable gives the azimuthal angle of a particle’s momentum in the detector frame (beam into +z direction). As a binary observable, it gives the azimuthal difference between the momenta of two particles: eval Phi [e1], all Phi > Pi [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Theta)
  • phs_e_scale     (default: 10 GeV)
    Real parameter that sets the energy scale that acts as a cutoff for parameterizing radiation-like kinematics in the wood phase space method. WHIZARD takes the maximum of this value and the width of the propagating particle as a cutoff. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_m_scale, phs_q_scale,
    ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • $phs_file     (default: ""/internal)
    This string variable allows the user to set an individual file name for the phase space parameterization for a particular process: $phs_file = "<file_name>". If not set, the default is <proc_name>_<proc_comp>.<run_id>.phs. (cf. also $phs_method)
  • ?phs_keep_nonresonant     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether the wood phase space method takes into account also non-resonant contributions. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_m_scale, phs_q_scale, phs_e_scale, ?phs_step_mapping,
    ?phs_step_mapping_exp, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • $phs_method     (default: "default","wood")
    String variable that allows to choose the phase-space parameterization method. The default is the "wood" method that takes into account electroweak/BSM resonances. Note that this might not be the best choice for (pure) QCD amplitudes. (cf. also $phs_file)
  • phs_m_scale     (default: 10 GeV)
    Real parameter that sets the mass scale that acts as a cutoff for parameterizing collinear and infrared kinematics in the wood phase space method. WHIZARD takes the maximum of this value and the mass of the propagating particle as a cutoff. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale, phs_q_scale,
    ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • phs_off_shell     (default: 2)
    Integer parameter that sets the number of off-shell (not t-channel-like, non-resonant) lines that are taken into account to find a valid phase-space setup in the wood phase-space method. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale, phs_q_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping,
    ?phs_step_mapping_exp, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • ?phs_only     (default: false)
    Flag (particularly as optional argument of the → integrate command) that allows to only generate the phase space file, but not perform the integration. (cf. also $phs_method, $phs_file)
  • phs_q_scale     (default: 10 GeV)
    Real parameter that sets the momentum transfer scale that acts as a cutoff for parameterizing t- and u-channel like kinematics in the wood phase space method. WHIZARD takes the maximum of this value and the mass of the propagating particle as a cutoff. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp,
    ?phs_s_mapping)
  • ?phs_s_mapping     (default: true)
    Flag that allows special mapping for s-channel resonances. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale,
    ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_q_scale, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp)
  • ?phs_step_mapping     (default: true)
    Flag that switches on (or off) a particular phase space mapping for resonances, where the mass and width of the resonance are explicitly set as channel cutoffs. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale,
    phs_m_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_q_scale, ?phs_step_mapping_exp,
    ?phs_s_mapping)
  • ?phs_step_mapping_exp     (default: true)
    Flag that switches on (or off) a particular phase space mapping for resonances, where the mass and width of the resonance are explicitly set as channel cutoffs. This is an exponential mapping in contrast to (→) ?phs_step_mapping. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_t_channel, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale,
    ?phs_q_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • phs_t_channel     (default: 6)
    Integer parameter that sets the number of t-channel propagators in multi-peripheral diagrams that are taken into account to find a valid phase-space setup in the wood phase-space method. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_threshold_s, phs_off_shell, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale, phs_q_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping,
    ?phs_step_mapping_exp, ?phs_s_mapping)
  • phs_threshold_s     (default: 50 GeV)
    For the phase space method wood, this real parameter sets the threshold below which particles are assumed to be massless in the s-channel like kinematic regions. (cf. also phs_threshold_t, phs_off_shell, phs_t_channel, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale,
    phs_q_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp,
    ?phs_s_mapping)
  • phs_threshold_t     (default: 100 GeV)
    For the phase space method wood, this real parameter sets the threshold below which particles are assumed to be massless in the t-channel like kinematic regions. (cf. also phs_threshold_s, phs_off_shell, phs_t_channel, phs_e_scale, phs_m_scale,
    phs_q_scale, ?phs_keep_resonant, ?phs_step_mapping, ?phs_step_mapping_exp,
    ?phs_s_mapping)
  • Pl
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the longitudinal momentum (pz in the c.m. frame) of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval Pl ["W+"], all Pl > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • plot
    This command defines the necessary information regarding plotting data as a graph, in the form of: plot <record_name> { <optional arguments> }. The record with name <record_name> has to be defined, either before or after the plot definition. Possible optional arguments of the plot command are the minimal and maximal values of the axes (x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max). (cf. graph, histogram, record)
  • plugin_algorithm
    Specifies a jet algorithm for the (→) jet_algorithm command, used in the (→) cluster subevent function. At the moment only available for the interfaced external FastJet package. (cf. also kt_algorithm, cambridge_for_passive_algorithm,
    genkt_[for_passive_]algorithm, ee_[gen]kt_algorithm, jet_r)
  • polarized
    Constructor to instruct WHIZARD to retain polarization of the corresponding particles in the generated events: polarized <prt1> [, <prt2> , ...]. (cf. also unpolarized, simulate, ?polarized_events)
  • ?polarized_events     (default: false)
    Flag that allows to select certain helicity combinations in final state particles in the event files, and perform analysis on polarized event samples. (cf. also simulate, polarized, unpolarized)
  • powheg_grid_sampling_points     (default: 500000)
    Number of calls used to initialize the Powheg grid.
  • powheg_grid_size_xi     (default: 5)
    Number of ξ-points in the Powheg grid.
  • powheg_grid_size_y     (default: 5)
    Number of y-points in the Powheg grid.
  • powheg_lambda     (defaul: ΛQCD)
    Reference scale of the αs-evolution in the Powheg matching algorithm.
  • ?powheg_matching     (default: false)
    Activates Powheg matching. Needs to be combined with the ?combined_nlo_integration-method.
  • powheg_pt_min     (default: 1.0)
    Lower pT-cut-off for the Powheg hardest emission.
  • ?powheg_rebuild_grids
    If set to true, the existing Powheg grid is discarded and a new one is generated.
  • ?powheg_test_sudakov
    Performs an internal consistency check on the Powheg event generation.
  • ?powheg_use_damping
    If set to true, the real matrix element is split into a finite and a singular part using a partition function f, such that
    R = [1−f(pT2)]R + f(pT2)R             = Rfin + Rsing.
    The emission generation is then performed using Rsing, whereas Rfin is added to B.
  • ?powheg_use_singular_jacobian
    ...
  • printf
    Command that allows to print data as screen messages, into logfiles or into user-defined output files: printf "<string_expr>". There exist format specifiers, very similar to the C command printf, e.g. printf "%i" (123). (cf. also open_out, close_out, $out_file, ?out_advance, sprintf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • process
    Allows to set a hard interaction process, either for a decay process with name <decay_proc> as process <decay_proc> = <mother> => <daughter1>, <daughter2>, ..., or for a scattering process with name <scat_proc as process <scat_proc> = <in1>, <in2> => <out1>, <out2>, .... Note that there can be arbitrarily many processes to be defined in a SINDARIN input file. There are two options for particle/process sums: flavor sums: <prt1>:<prt2>:..., where all masses have to be identical, and inclusive sums, <prt1> + <prt2> + .... The latter can be done on the level of individual particles, or sums over whole final states. Here, masses can differ, and terms will be translated into different process components. The process command also allows for optional arguments, e.g. to specify a numerical identifier (cf. process_num_id), the method how to generate the code for the matrix element(s): $method, possible methods are either with the O’Mega matrix element generator, using template matrix elements with different normalizations, or completely internal matrix element; for O’Mega matrix elements there is also the possibility to specify possible restrictions (cf. $restrictions).
  • process_num_id
    Using the integer process_num_id = <int_var> one can set a numerical identifier for processes within a process library. This can be set either just before the corresponding process definition or as an optional local argument of the latter. (cf. also process)
  • ps_fixed_alpha_s     (default: 0.)
    This real parameter sets the value of αs if it is (cf. → ?ps_isr_alpha_s_running,
    ?ps_fsr_alpha_s_running) not running in initial and/or final-state QCD showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_fsr_active     (default: false)
    Flag that switches final-state QCD radiation (FSR) on. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_fsr_alpha_s_running     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether a running αs is taken in time-like QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_fsr_lambda     (default: 0.29 GeV)
    By this real parameter, the value of ΛQCD used in running αs for time-like showers is set (except for showers in the decay of a resonance). (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_isr_active     (default: false)
    Flag that switches initial-state QCD radiation (ISR) on. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_isr_alpha_s_running     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether a running αs is taken in space-like QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_isr_angular_ordered     (default: true)
    If switched one, this flag forces opening angles of emitted partons in the QCD ISR shower to be strictly ordered, i.e. increasing towards the hard interaction. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_isr_lambda     (default: 0.29 GeV)
    By this real parameter, the value of ΛQCD used in running αs for space-like showers is set. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_isr_minenergy     (default: 2 GeV)
    By this real parameter, the minimal effective energy (in the c.m. frame) of a time-like or on-shell-emitted parton in a space-like QCD shower is set. For a hard subprocess that is not in the rest frame, this number is roughly reduced by a boost factor 1/γ to the rest frame of the hard scattering process. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_isr_only_onshell_emitted_partons     (default: false)
    This flag if set true sets all emitted partons off space-like showers on-shell, i.e. it would not allow associated time-like showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_isr_primordial_kt_cutoff     (default: 5 GeV)
    Real parameter that sets the upper cutoff for the primordial kT distribution inside a hadron. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?hadronization_active, ?mlm_ ...)
  • ps_isr_primordial_kt_width     (default: 0 GeV/off)
    This real parameter sets the width σ = ⟨kT2⟩ for the Gaussian primordial kT distribution inside the hadron, given by: exp[−kT22] kT dkT. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_isr_pt_ordered     (default: false)
    By this flag, it can be switched between the analytic QCD ISR shower (false, default) and the pT ISR QCD shower (true). (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_isr_tscalefactor     (default: 1.)
    The Q2 scale of the hard scattering process is multiplied by this real factor to define the maximum parton virtuality allowed in time-like QCD showers. This does only apply to t- and u-channels, while for s-channel resonances the maximum virtuality is set by m2. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_isr_z_cutoff     (default: 0.999)
    This real parameter allows to set the upper cutoff on the splitting variable z in space-like QCD parton showers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_mass_cutoff     (default: 1 GeV)
    Real value that sets the QCD parton shower lower cutoff scale, where hadronization sets in. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_max_n_flavors     (default: 5)
    This integer parameter sets the maxmimum number of flavors that can be produced in a QCD shower gqq. It is also used as the maximal number of active flavors for the running of αs in the shower (with a minimum of 3). (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • $ps_PYTHIA_PYGIVE     (default: "")
    String variable that allows to pass options for tunes etc. to the attached PYTHIA parton shower or hadronization, e.g.: $ps_PYTHIA_PYGIVE = "MSTJ(41)=1". (cf. also
    ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_PYTHIA_verbose     (default: false)
    Flag to switch on verbose messages when using the PYTHIA shower and/or hadronization. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ?ps_taudec_active     (default: false)
    Flag to switch on τ decays, at the moment only via the included external package TAUOLA and PHOTOS. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?hadronization_active)
  • ps_tauola_dec_mode1/2     (default: 0)
    Integer code to request a specific τ decay within TAUOLA for the decaying τ, and – in correlated decays – for the second τ. For more information cf. the comments in the code or the TAUOLA manual. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ps_tauola_mh     (default: 125.)
    Real option to set the Higgs mass for Higgs decays into τ leptons in the interface to TAUOLA. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ps_tauola_mix_angle     (default: 0.)
    Option to set the mixing angle between scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons for Higgs decays into τ leptons in the interface to TAUOLA. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ?ps_tauola_photos     (default: false)
    Flag to switch on PHOTOS for photon showering inside the TAUOLA package. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ?ps_tauola_pol_vector     (default: false)
    Flag to decide whether for transverse τ polarization, polarization information should be taken from TAUOLA or not. The default is just based on random numbers. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ?ps_tauola_rad_cor     (default: false)
    Flag to switch radiative corrections for τ decays in TAUOLA on or off. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • ?ps_tauola_transverse     (default: false)
    Flag to switch transverse τ polarization on or off for Higgs decays into τ leptons. (cf. also ?allow_shower, ?ps_ ..., $ps_ ..., ?mlm_ ..., ?ps_taudec_active)
  • Pt
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the transverse momentum (√px2 + py2 in the c.m. frame) of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval Pt ["W+"], all Pt > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • Px
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the x-component of the momentum of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval Px ["W+"], all Px > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • Py
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the y-component of the momentum of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval Py ["W+"], all Py > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • Pz
    Unary (binary) observable specifier for the z-component of the momentum of a single (two) particle(s), e.g. eval Pz ["W+"], all Pz > 200 GeV [b, B]. (cf. eval, cuts, selection)
  • quit
    Command to finish the WHIZARD run (and not execute any further code beyond the appearance of quit in the SINDARIn file. The command (which is the same as → exit) allows for an argument, quit (<expr>), where the expression can be executed, e.g. a screen message or an quit code.
  • rad
    Expression specifying the physical unit of radians for angular variables. This is the default in WHIZARD. (cf. degree, mrad).
  • Rap
    Unary and also binary observable specifier, that as a unary observable gives the rapidity of a particle momentum. The rapidity is given by y = 1/2 log[ (E + pz)/(Epz) ]. As a binary observable, it gives the rapidity difference between the momenta of two particles: eval Rap [e1], all abs (Rap) < 3.5 [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Eta, abs)
  • ?read_color_factors     (default: true)
    This flag decides whether to read QCD color factors from the matrix element provided by each method, or to try and calculate the color factors in WHIZARD internally.
  • ?read_raw     (default: true)
    This flag demands WHIZARD to (try to) read events (from the internal binary format) first before generating new ones. (cf. simulate, ?write_raw, $sample, sample_format)
  • read_slha
    Tells WHIZARD to read in an input file in the SUSY Les Houches accord (SLHA), as read_slha ("slha_file.slha"). Note that the files for the use in WHIZARD should have the suffix .slha. (cf. also write_slha, ?slha_read_decays, ?slha_read_input, ?slha_read_spectrum)
  • real
    This is a constructor to specify real constants in the input file. Strictly speaking, it is a unary function setting the value real_val of the real variable real_var: real <real_var> = <real_val>. (cf. also int and complex)
  • real_epsilon
    Predefined real; the relative uncertainty intrinsic to the floating point type of the Fortran compiler with which WHIZARD has been built.
  • real_precision
    Predefined integer; the decimal precision of the floating point type of the Fortran compiler with which WHIZARD has been built.
  • real_range
    Predefined integer; the decimal range of the floating point type of the Fortran compiler with which WHIZARD has been built.
  • real_tiny
    Predefined real; the smallest number which can be represented by the floating point type of the Fortran compiler with which WHIZARD has been built.
  • $real_tree_me_method     (default: "omega")
    This string variable specifies the method for the matrix elements to be used in the evaluation of the real part of the NLO computation. The default is the intrinsic O’Mega matrix element generator ("omega"), other options are: "ovm", "unit_test", "template", "template_unity", "threshold", "gosam", "openloops". (cf. also $correlation_me_method, $loop_me_method and $born_me_method.)
  • ?rebuild_events     (default: false)
    This logical variable, if set true triggers WHIZARD to newly create an event sample, even if nothing seems to have changed, including the MD5 checksum. This can be used when manually manipulating some settings. (cf also ?rebuild_grids, ?rebuild_library, ?rebuild_phase_space)
  • ?rebuild_grids     (default: false)
    The logical variable ?rebuild_grids forces WHIZARD to newly create the VAMP grids when using VAMP as an integration method, even if they are already present. (cf. also ?rebuild_events, ?rebuild_library, ?rebuild_phase_space)
  • ?rebuild_library     (default: false)
    The logical variable ?rebuild_library = true/false specifies whether the library(-ies) for the matrix element code for processes is re-generated (incl. possible Makefiles etc.) by the corresponding ME method (e.g. if the process has been changed, but not its name). This can also be set as a command-line option whizard --rebuild. The default is false, i.e. code is never re-generated if it is present and the MD5 checksum is valid. (cf. also ?recompile_library, ?rebuild_grids, ?rebuild_phase_space)
  • ?rebuild_phase_space     (default: false)
    This logical variable, if set true, triggers recreation of the phase space file by WHIZARD(cf. also ?rebuild_events, ?rebuild_grids, ?rebuild_library)
  • ?recompile_library     (default: false)
    The logical variable ?recompile_library = true/false specifies whether the library(-ies) for the matrix element code for processes is re-compiled (e.g. if the process code has been manually modified by the user). This can also be set as a command-line option whizard --recompile. The default is false, i.e. code is never re-compiled if its corresponding object file is present. (cf. also ?rebuild_library)
  • record
    The record constructor provides an internal data structure in SINDARIN input files. Its syntax is in general record <record_name> (<cmd_expr>). The <cmd_expr> could be the definition of a tuple of points for a histogram or an eval constructor that tells WHIZARD e.g. by which rule to calculate an observable to be stored in the record record_name. Example: record h (12) is a record for a histogram defined under the name h with the single data point (bin) at value 12; record rap1 (eval Rap [e1]) defines a record with name rap1 which has an evaluator to calculate the rapidity (predefined WHIZARD function) of an outgoing electron. (cf. also eval, histogram, plot)
  • ?recover_beams     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whehter the beam particles should be reconstructed when reading event/rescanning files into WHIZARD. (cf. rescan, ?update_event, ?update_sqme,
    ?update_weight)
  • relative_error_goal     (default: 0./off)
    Real parameter that allows the user to set a minimal relative error that should be achieved in the Monte-Carlo integration of a certain process. If that goal is reached, grid and weight adaptation stop, and this result is used for simulation. (cf. also integrate, iterations, accuracy_goal, error_goal, error_threshold)
  • renormalization_scale
    This is a command, renormalization_scale = <expr>, that sets the renormalization scale of a process or list of processes. It overwrites a possible scale set by the (→) scale command. <expr> can be any kinematic expression that leads to a result of momentum dimension one, e.g. 100 GeV, eval Pt [e1]. (cf. also factorization_scale).
  • ?report_progress     (default: true)
    Flag for the O’Mega matrix element generator whether to print out status messages about progress during matrix element generation. (cf. also $method, $omega_flags)
  • rescan
    This command allows to rescan event samples with modified model parameter, beam structure etc. to recalculate (analysis) observables, e.g.:
    rescan "<event_file>" (<proc_name>) { <rescan_setup>}.
    "<event_file>" is the name of the event file and <proc_name> is the process whose (existing) event file of arbitrary size that is to be rescanned. Several flags allow to reconstruct the beams (→ ?recover_beams), to reuse only the hard process but rebuild the full events (→ ?update_event), to recalculate the matrix element (→ ?update_sqme) or to recalculate the individual event weight (→ ?update_weight). Further rescan options are redefining model parameter input, or defining a completely new alternative setup (→ alt_setup) (cf. also $rescan_input_format)
  • $rescan_input_format     (default: "raw")
    String variable that allows to set the event format of the event file that is to be rescanned by the (→) rescan command.
  • $resonances_exclude_particles Accepts a string of particle names. These particles will be ignored when the resonance histories are generated. If $fks_mapping_type is not "resonances", this option does nothing.
  • $restrictions
    This is an optional argument for process definitions for the matrix element method "omega". Using the following construction, it defines a string variable, process
    <process_name> = <particle1>, <particle2> => <particle3>, <particle4>, ... { $restrictions = "<restriction_def>" }. The string argument <restriction_def> is directly transferred during the code generation to the ME generator O’Mega. It has to be of the form n1 + n2 + ... ~ <particle (list)>, where n1 and so on are the numbers of the particles above in the process definition. The tilde specifies a certain intermediate state to be equal to the particle(s) in particle (list). An example is process eemm_z = e1, E1 => e2, E2 { $restrictions = "1+2 ~ Z" } restricts the code to be generated for the process e e+ → µ µ+ to the s-channel Z-boson exchange. For more details see Sec. 9.3 (cf. also process)
  • results
    Only used in the combination show (results). Forces WHIZARD to print out a results summary for the integrated processes. (cf. also show)
  • reweight
    The reweight = <expr> command allows to give for a process or list of processes an alternative weight, given by any kind of scalar expression <expr>, e.g. reweight = 0.2 or reweight = (eval M2 [e1, E1]) / (eval M2 [e2, E2]). (cf. also alt_setup, weight, rescan)
  • $rng_method     (default: "tao")
    String variable that allows to set the method for the random number generation. Default is Donald Knuth’ RNG method TAO.
  • $run_id     (default: ""/no run ID)
    String variable $run_id = "<id>" that allows to set a special ID for a particular process run, e.g. in a scan. The run ID is then attached to the process log file:
    <proc_name>_<proc_comp>.<id>.log, the VAMP grid file:
    <proc_name>_<proc_comp>.<id>.vg, and the phase space file:
    <proc_name>_<proc_comp>.<id>.phs. The run ID string distinguishes among several runs for the same process. It identifies process instances with respect to adapted integration grids and similar run-specific data. The run ID is kept when copying processes for creating instances, however, so it does not distinguish event samples.
  • safety_factor     (default: 1.)
    This real variable safety_factor = <num> reduces the acceptance probability for unweighting. If greater than one, excess events become less likely, but the reweighting efficiency also drops. (cf. simulate, ?unweighted)
  • $sample     (default: ""/internal)
    String variable to set the (base) name of the event output format, e.g. $sample = "foo" will result in an intrinsic binary format event file foo.evx. (cf. also sample_format, simulate, hepevt, ascii, athena, debug, long, short, hepmc, lhef, lha, stdhep, stdhep_up, $sample_normalization, ?sample_pacify, sample_max_tries)
  • sample_format
    Variable that allows the user to specify additional event formats beyond the WHIZARD native binary event format. Its syntax is sample_format = <format>, where <format> can be any of the following specifiers: hepevt, hepevt_verb, ascii, athena, debug, long, short, hepmc, lhef, lha, lha_verb, stdhep, stdhep_up. (cf. also $sample, simulate, hepevt, ascii, athena, debug, long, short, hepmc, lhef, lha, stdhep, stdhep_up,
    $sample_normalization, ?sample_pacify, sample_max_tries, sample_split_n_evt, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • sample_max_tries     (default: 10000)
    Integer variable that sets the maximal number of tries for generating a single event. The event might be vetoed because of a very low unweighting efficiency, errors in the event transforms like decays, shower, matching, hadronization etc. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, ?sample_pacify, $sample_normalization, sample_split_n_evt, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • $sample_normalization     (default: "auto")
    String variable that allows to set the normalization of generated events. There are four options: option "1" (events normalized to one), "1/n" (sum of all events in a sample normalized to one), "sigma" (events normalized to the cross section of the process), and "sigma/n" (sum of all events normalized to the cross section). The default is "auto" where unweighted events are normalized to one, and weighted ones to the cross section. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, ?sample_pacify, sample_max_tries, sample_split_n_evt, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • ?sample_pacify     (default: false)
    Flag, mainly for debugging purposes: suppresses numerical noise in the output of a simulation. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, $sample_normalization, sample_max_tries, sample_split_n_evt, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • sample_split_index     (default: 0)
    Integer number that gives the starting index sample_split_index = <split_index> for the numbering of event samples <proc_name>.<split_index>.<evt_extension> split by the sample_split_n_evt = <num>. The index runs from <split_index> to <split_index> + <num>. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, $sample_normalization,
    sample_max_tries, ?sample_pacify)
  • sample_split_n_evt     (default: 0)
    When generating events, this integer parameter sample_split_n_evt = <num> gives the number <num> of breakpoints in the event files, i.e. it splits the event files into <num> + 1 parts. The parts are denoted by <proc_name>.<split_index>.<evt_extension>. Here, <split_index> is an integer running from 0 to <num>. The start can be reset by (→) sample_split_index. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, sample_max_tries, $sample_normalization, ?sample_pacify, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • sample_split_n_kbytes     (default: 0)
    When generating events, this integer parameter sample_split_n_kbytes = <num> limits the file size of event files. Whenever an event file has exceeded this size, counted in kilobytes, the following events will be written to a new file. The naming conventions are the same as for sample_split_n_evt. (cf. also simulate, $sample, sample_format, sample_max_tries, $sample_normalization, ?sample_pacify)
  • scale
    This is a command, scale = <expr>, that sets the kinematic scale of a process or list of processes. Unless overwritten explicitly by (→) factorization_scale and/or (→) renormalization_scale it sets both scales. <expr> can be any kinematic expression that leads to a result of momentum dimension one, e.g. scale = 100 GeV, scale = eval Pt [e1].
  • scan
    Constructor to perform loops over variables or scan over processes in the integration procedure. The syntax is scan <var> <var_name> (<value list> or <value_init> => <value_fin> /<incrementor> <increment>) { <scan_cmd> }. The variable var can be specified if it is not a real, e.g. an integer. var_name is the name of the variable which is also allowed to be a predefined one like seed. For the scan, one can either specify an explicit list of values value list, or use an initial and final value and a rule to increment. The scan_cmd can either be just a show to print out the scanned variable or the integration of a process. Examples are: scan seed (32 => 1 // 2) { show (seed_value) } , which runs the seed down in steps 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 (division by two). scan mW (75 GeV, 80 GeV => 82 GeV /+ 0.5 GeV, 83 GeV => 90 GeV /* 1.2) { show (sw) } scans over the W mass for the values 75, 80, 80.5, 81, 81.5, 82, 83 GeV, namely one discrete value, steps by adding 0.5 GeV, and increase by 20 % (the latter having no effect as it already exceeds the final value). It prints out the corresponding value of the effective mixing angle which is defined as a dependent variable in the model input file(s). scan sqrts (500 GeV => 600 GeV /+ 10 GeV) { integrate (proc) } integrates the process proc in eleven increasing 10 GeV steps in center-of-mass energy from 500 to 600 GeV. (cf. also /+, /+/, /-, /*, /*/, //)
  • seed
    Integer variable seed = <num> that allows to set a specific random seed num. If not set, WHIZARD takes the time from the system clock to determine the random seed.
  • select
    Subevent function select if <condition> [<list1> [ , <list2>]] that select all particles in <list1> that satisfy the condition <condition>. The second particle list <list2> is for conditions that depend on binary observables. (cf. also collect, combine, extract, sort, +)
  • selection
    Command that allows to select particular final states in an analysis selection, selection = <log_expr>. The term log_expr can be any kind of logical expression. The syntax matches exactly the one of the (→) cuts command. E.g. selection = any PDG == 13 is an electron selection in a lepton sample.
  • ?sf_allow_s_mapping     (default: true)
    Flag that determines whether special mappings for processes with structure functions and s-channel resonances are applied, e.g. Drell-Yan at hadron colliders, or Z production at linear colliders with beamstrahlung and ISR.
  • ?sf_trace     (default: false)
    Debug flag that writes out detailed information about the structure function setup into the file <proc_name>_sftrace.dat. This file name can be changed with (→) $sf_trace_file.
  • $sf_trace_file     (default: ""/off)
    $sf_trace_file = "<file_name>" allows to change the detailed structure function information switched on by the debug flag (→) ?sf_trace into a different file <file_name> than the default <proc_name>_sftrace.dat.
  • sgn
    Numerical function for integer and real numbers that gives the sign of its argument: sgn (<num_val>) yields +1 if <num_val> is positive or zero, and −1 otherwise. (cf. also abs, conjg, mod, modulo)
  • short
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of the short variant of HEPEVT ASCII event files. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • show
    This is a unary function that is operating on specific constructors in order to print them out in the WHIZARD screen output as well as the log file whizard.log. Examples are show(<parameter_name>) to issue a specific parameter from a model or a constant defined in a SINDARIN input file, show(integral(<proc_name>)), show(library), show(results), or show(<var>) for any arbitrary variable. Further possibilities are show(real), show(string), show(logical) etc. to allow to show all defined real, string, logical etc. variables, respectively. (cf. also library, results)
  • $shower_method     (default: "WHIZARD")
    String variable that allows to specify which parton shower is being used, the default, "WHIZARD", is one of the in-house showers of WHIZARD. Other possibilities at the moment are only "PYTHIA6".
  • simulate
    This command invokes the generation of events for the process proc by means of simulate (<proc>). Optional arguments: $sample, sample_format, checkpoint (cf. also integrate, luminosity, n_events, $sample, sample_format, checkpoint, ?unweighted, safety_factor, ?negative_weights, sample_max_tries, sample_split_n_evt, sample_split_n_kbytes)
  • sin
    Numerical function sin (<num_val>) that calculates the sine trigonometric function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also cos, tan, asin, acos, atan)
  • sinh
    Numerical function sinh (<num_val>) that calculates the hyperbolic sine function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. Note that its inverse function is part of the Fortran2008 status and hence not realized. (cf. also cosh, tanh)
  • ?slha_read_decays     (default: false)
    Flag which decides whether WHIZARD reads in the widths and branching ratios from the DCINFO common block of the SUSY Les Houches Accord files. (cf. also read_slha, write_slha, ?slha_read_spectrum, ?slha_read_input)
  • ?slha_read_input     (default: true)
    Flag which decides whether WHIZARD reads in the SM and parameter information from the SMINPUTS and MINPAR common blocks of the SUSY Les Houches Accord files. (cf. also read_slha, write_slha, ?slha_read_spectrum, ?slha_read_decays)
  • ?slha_read_spectrum     (default: true)
    Flag which decides whether WHIZARD reads in the whole spectrum and mixing angle information from the common blocks of the SUSY Les Houches Accord files. (cf. also read_slha, write_slha, ?slha_read_decays, ?slha_read_input)
  • sort
    Subevent function that allows to sort a particle list/subevent either by increasing PDG code: sort [<particles>] (particles first, then antiparticles). Alternatively, it can sort according to a unary or binary particle observable (in that case there is a second particle list, where the first particle is taken as a reference): sort by <observable> [<particles> [, <ref_particles>]]. (cf. also extract, combine, collect, join, by, +)
  • sprintf
    Command that allows to print data into a string variable: sprintf "<string_expr>". There exist format specifiers, very similar to the C command sprintf, e.g. sprintf "%i" (123). (cf. printf, %d, %i, %e, %f, %g, %E, %F, %G, %s)
  • sqrt
    Numerical function sqrt (<num_val>) that calculates the square root of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also exp, log, log10)
  • sqrts
    Real variable in order to set the center-of-mass energy for the collisions (collider energy √s, not hard interaction energy √ŝ): sqrts = <num> [ <phys_unit> ]. The physical unit can be one of the following eV, keV, MeV, GeV, and TeV. If absent, WHIZARD takes GeV as its standard unit. Note that this variable is absolutely mandatory for integration and simulation of scattering processes.
  • sqrts_hat
    Real variable that accesses the partonic energy of a hard-scattering process. It can be used in cuts or in an analysis, e.g. cuts = sqrts_hat > <num> [ <phys_unit> ]. The physical unit can be one of the following eV, keV, MeV, GeV, and TeV. (cf. also sqrts, cuts, record)
  • stable
    This constructor allows particles in the final states of processes in decay cascade set-up to be set as stable, and not letting them decay. The syntax is stable <prt_name> (cf. also unstable)
  • stdhep
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of binary StdHEP event files based on the HEPEVT common block. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • stdhep_up
    Specifier for the sample_format command to demand the generation of binary StdHEP event files based on the HEPRUP/HEPEUP common blocks. (cf. also $sample, sample_format)
  • ?stratified     (default: true)
    Flag that switches between stratified and importance sampling for the VAMP integration method.
  • $symbol
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: $symbol = "<LaTeX_code>" is a string variable for the symbols that should be used for plotting data points. (cf. also $obs_label, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label,
    graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, ?y_log, ?x_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_fg, $gmlcode_bg, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $fill_options, $draw_options,
    $err_options, ?draw_symbols)
  • tan
    Numerical function tan (<num_val>) that calculates the tangent trigonometric function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. (cf. also sin, cos, asin, acos, atan)
  • tanh
    Numerical function tanh (<num_val>) that calculates the hyperbolic tangent function of real and complex numerical numbers or variables. Note that its inverse function is part of the Fortran2008 status and hence not realized. (cf. also cosh, sinh)
  • ?test_anti_coll_limit     (default: false)
    Sets the fixed values ξ = 0.5 and y = −0.999 as radiation variables. This way, only anti-collinear, but non-soft phase space points are generated, which allows for testing subtraction in this region. Can be combined with ?test_soft_limit to probe soft-collinear regions.
  • ?test_coll_limit     (default: false)
    Sets the fixed values ξ = 0.5 and y = 0.999 as radiation variables. This way, only collinear, but non-soft phase space points are generated, which allows for testing subtraction in this region. Can be combined with ?test_soft_limit to probe soft-collinear regions.
  • ?test_soft_limit     (default: false)
    Sets the fixed values ξ = 0.0001 and y = 0.5 as radiation variables. This way, only soft, but non-collinear phase space points are generated, which allows for testing subtraction in this region.
  • TeV
    Physical unit, for energies in 1012 electron volt. (cf. also eV, keV, MeV, meV, GeV)
  • then
    Mandatory phrase in a conditional clause: if <log_expr> then <expr 1> …endif. (cf. also if, else, elsif, endif).
  • Theta
    Unary and also binary observable specifier, that as a unary observable gives the angle between a particle’s momentum and the beam axis (+z direction). As a binary observable, it gives the angle enclosed between the momenta of the two particles: eval Theta [e1], all Theta > 30 degrees [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Phi, Theta_star)
  • Theta_star
    Binary observable specifier, that gives the polar angle enclosed between the momenta of the two particles in the rest frame of the mother particle (momentum sum of the two particle): eval Theta_star [jet, jet]. (cf. also eval, cuts, selection, Theta)
  • threshold_calls     (default: 10)
    This integer variable gives a limit for the number of calls in a given channel which acts as a lower threshold for the channel weight. If the number of calls in that channel falls below this threshold, the weight is not lowered further but kept at this threshold. (cf. also channel_weights_power)
  • $title     (default: ""/off)
    This string variable sets the title of a plot in a WHIZARD analysis setup, e.g. a histogram or an observable. The syntax is $title = "<your title>". This title appears as a section header in the analysis file, but not in the screen output of the analysis. (cf. also n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $description, $x_label, $y_label, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?fill_curve, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • tolerance     (default: 0.)
    Real variable that defines the absolute tolerance with which the (logical) function expect accepts equality or inequality: tolerance = <num>. This can e.g. be used for cross-section tests and backwards compatibility checks. (cf. also expect)
  • true
    Constructor stating that a logical expression or variable is true, e.g. ?<log_var> = true. (cf. also false).
  • unpolarized
    Constructor to force WHIZARD to discard polarization of the corresponding particles in the generated events: unpolarized <prt1> [, <prt2> , ...]. (cf. also polarized, simulate, ?polarized_events)
  • unstable
    This constructor allows to let final state particles of the hard interaction undergo a subsequent (cascade) decay (in the on-shell approximation). For this the user has to define the list of desired

        process zee =   Z => e1, E1
        process zuu =   Z => u, U 
        process zz = e1, E1 => Z, Z
        compile
        integrate (zee) { iterations = 1:100 }
        integrate (zuu) { iterations = 1:100 }
        sqrts = 500 GeV
        integrate (zz) { iterations = 3:5000, 2:5000 }
        unstable Z (zee, zuu)
     
    Figure A.1: SINDARIN input file for unstable particles and inclusive decays.

    decay channels as unstable <mother> (<decay1>, <decay2>, ....), where mother is the mother particle, and the argument is a list of decay channels. Note that – unless the ?auto_decays = true flag has been set – these decay channels have to be provided by the user as in the example in Fig. A.1. First, the Z decays to electrons and up quarks are generated, then ZZ production at a 500 GeV ILC is called, and then both Zs are decayed according to the probability distribution of the two generated decay matrix elements. This obviously allows also for inclusive decays. (cf. also stable, ?auto_decays)
  • ?unweighted     (default: true)
    Flag that distinguishes between unweighted and weighted event generation. (cf. also simulate, n_events, luminosity)
  • ?update_event     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the events in an event file should be rebuilt from the hard process when reading event/rescanning files into WHIZARD. (cf. rescan, ?recover_beams, ?update_sqme, ?update_weight)
  • ?update_sqme     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whehter the squared matrix element in an event file should be updated/recalculated when reading event/rescanning files into WHIZARD. (cf. rescan,
    ?recover_beams, ?update_event, ?update_weight)
  • ?update_weight     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the weights in an event file should be updated/recalculated when reading event/rescanning files into WHIZARD. (cf. rescan, ?recover_beams,
    ?update_event, ?update_sqme)
  • ?use_alpha_s_from_file     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the current αs definition should be used when recalculating matrix elements for events read from file, or the value that is stored in the file for that event. (cf. rescan, ?update_sqme, ?use_scale_from_file)
  • ?use_scale_from_file     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the current energy-scale expression should be used when recalculating matrix elements for events read from file, or the value that is stored in the file for that event. (cf. rescan, ?update_sqme, ?use_alpha_s_from_file)
  • ?use_vamp_equivalences     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether equivalence relations (symmetries) between different integration channels are used by the VAMP integrator.
  • ?vamp_history_channels     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the history of the grid adaptation of the VAMP integrator for every single channel are written into the process logfiles. Only for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?vamp_history_global_verbose, ?vamp_history_global, ?vamp_verbose,
    ?vamp_history_channels_verbose)
  • ?vamp_history_channels_verbose     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the history of the grid adaptation of the VAMP integrator for every single channel are written into the process logfiles in an extended version. Only for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?vamp_history_global, ?vamp_history_channels, ?vamp_verbose, ?vamp_history_global_verbose)
  • ?vamp_history_global     (default: true)
    Flag that decides whether the global history of the grid adaptation of the VAMP integrator are written into the process logfiles. (cf. also ?vamp_history_global_verbose, ?vamp_history_channels, ?vamp_history_channels_verbose, ?vamp_verbose)
  • ?vamp_history_global_verbose     (default: false)
    Flag that decides whether the global history of the grid adaptation of the VAMP integrator are written into the process logfiles in an extended version. Only for debugging purposes. (cf. also ?vamp_history_global, ?vamp_history_channels, ?vamp_verbose, ?vamp_history_channels_verbose)
  • ?vamp_verbose     (default: false)
    Flag that sets the chattiness of the VAMP integrator. If set, not only errors, but also all warnings and messages will be written out (not the default). (cf. also
    ?vamp_history_global, ?vamp_history_global_verbose, ?vamp_history_channels,
    ?vamp_history_channels_verbose)
  • ?vis_channels     (default: false)
    Optional logical argument for the integrate command that demands WHIZARD to generate a PDF or postscript output showing the classification of the found phase space channels (if the phase space method wood has been used) according to their properties: integrate (foo) { iterations=3:10000 ?vis_channels = true }. The default is false. (cf. also integrate, ?vis_history)
  • ?vis_diags     (default: false)
    Logical variable that allows to give out a Postscript or PDF file for the Feynman diagrams for a O’Mega process. (cf. ?vis_diags_color).
  • ?vis_diags_color     (default: false)
    Same as ?vis_diags, but switches on color flow instead of Feynman diagram generation. (cf. ?vis_diags).
  • ?vis_history     (default: true)
    Optional logical argument for the integrate command that demands WHIZARD to generate a PDF or postscript output showing the adaptation history of the Monte-Carlo integration of the process under consideration. (cf. also integrate, ?vis_channels)
  • weight
    This is a command, weight = <expr>, that allows to specify a weight for a process or list of processes. <expr> can be any expression that leads to a scalar result, e.g. weight = 0.2, weight = eval Pt [jet]. (cf. also rescan, alt_setup, reweight)
  • write_analysis
    The write_analysis statement tells WHIZARD to write the analysis setup by the user for the SINDARIN input file under consideration. If no $out_file is provided, the histogram tables/plot data etc. are written to the default file whizard_analysis.dat. Note that the related command compile_analysis does the same as write_analysis but in addition invokes the WHIZARD LATEXroutines for producing postscript or PDF output of the data. (cf. also $out_file, compile_analysis)
  • ?write_raw     (default: true)
    Flag to write out events in WHIZARD’s internal binary format. (cf. simulate, ?read_raw, sample_format, $sample)
  • write_slha
    Demands WHIZARD to write out a file in the SUSY Les Houches accord (SLHA) format. (cf. also read_slha, ?slha_read_decays, ?slha_read_input, ?slha_read_spectrum)
  • $x_label     (default: ""/off)
    String variable, $x_label = "<LaTeX code>", that sets the x axis label in a plot or histogram in a WHIZARD analysis. (cf. also analysis, n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, $y_label, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?fill_curve,
    ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • ?x_log     (default: false)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that makes the x axis logarithmic. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, graph_width_mm, ?y_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options,
    $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • x_max     (default: internal)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: real parameter that sets the upper limit of the x axis plotting or histogram interval. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, ?y_log,
    ?x_log, graph_width_mm, x_min, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • x_min     (default: internal)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: real parameter that sets the lower limit of the x axis plotting or histogram interval. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, ?y_log,
    ?x_log, graph_width_mm, x_max, y_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • $y_label     (default: ""/off)
    String variable, $y_label = "<LaTeX_code>", that sets the y axis label in a plot or histogram in a WHIZARD analysis. (cf. also analysis, n_bins, ?normalize_bins, $obs_unit, ?y_log, ?x_log, graph_width_mm, graph_height_mm, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base, ?draw_histogram, ?fill_curve,
    ?draw_piecewise, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, $symbol, ?draw_symbols,
    $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options)
  • ?y_log     (default: false)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: flag that makes the y axis logarithmic. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, graph_width_mm, ?y_log, x_min, x_max, y_min, y_max,
    $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_histogram, ?draw_base, ?draw_piecewise,
    ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors, ?draw_symbols, $fill_options,
    $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • y_max     (default: internal)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: real parameter that sets the upper limit of the y axis plotting or histogram interval. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, ?y_log,
    ?x_log, graph_width_mm, x_max, x_min, y_max, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)
  • y_min     (default: internal)
    Settings for WHIZARD’s internal graphics output: real parameter that sets the lower limit of the y axis plotting or histogram interval. (cf. also ?normalize_bins, $obs_label, $obs_unit, $title, $description, $x_label, $y_label, graph_height_mm, ?y_log,
    ?x_log, graph_width_mm, x_max, y_max, x_min, $gmlcode_bg, $gmlcode_fg, ?draw_base,
    ?draw_histogram, ?draw_piecewise, ?fill_curve, ?draw_curve, ?draw_errors,
    ?draw_symbols, $fill_options, $draw_options, $err_options, $symbol)

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank E. Boos, R. Chierici, K. Desch, M. Kobel, F. Krauss, P.M. Manakos, N. Meyer, K. Mönig, H. Reuter, T. Robens, S. Rosati, J. Schumacher, M. Schumacher, and C. Schwinn who contributed to WHIZARD by their suggestions, bits of codes and valuable remarks and/or used several versions of the program for real-life applications and thus helped a lot in debugging and improving the code. Special thanks go to A. Vaught and J. Weill for their continuos efforts on improving the g95 and gfortran compilers, respectively.


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